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^ 2d S^ssfon"" } COMMITTEE PRINT 



AMERICAN FOREIGIS' FOOD ASSISTANCE 
Public Law 480 and Related Materials 



COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURE 

AND FORESTRY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 








AUGUST 13, 1976 '"->->>,,///// 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
67-053 WASHINGTON : 1976 



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COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 

HERMAN E. TALMADGE, Georgia, Chairman 
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi ROBERT DOLE, Kansas 

GEORGE McGOVERN, South Dakota MILTON R. YOUNG, North Dakota 

JAMES B. ALLEN, Alabama CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska 

HUBERT H. HUMPHREY, Minnesota HENRY BELLMON, Oklahoma 

WALTER D. HUDDLESTON, Kentucky JESSE HELMS, North Carolina 

DICK CLARK, Iowa 
RICHARD B. STONE, Florida 
PATRICK J. LEAHY, Vermont 

Michael R. McLeod, General Counsel and Staff Director 

Henry J. Casso, Chief Economist 

Carl P. Rose, Counsel 

James W. Giltmier, Professional Staff Member 

William A. Taggart, Professional Staff Member 

Dale L. Stansbury, Economist 

Thomas Reese Saylor, Economist 

James C. Webster, Chief Clerk and Press Secretary 

Phillip L. Fraas, Assistant Counsel 

Stephen E. Storch, Assistant Counsel 

Roy Frederick, Econornist 

Stuart B. Hardy, Professional Staff Member 

Reider J. Whpte, Research Assistant 
~ 'Q'e.TViM..M.K^Qi^, Clerical Assistant 

JT ..^ Helen A. Miller, Clerical Assistant 

^ ^,- Laura D. Rice, Clerical Assistant 

^ .^ .' Ma.rgx'R^tKei.i.^y, Clerical Assistant 

< "C: ' Denise a. Love, Assistant Clerk 

Maureen T. Burke, Clerical Assistant 

Nancy W. Whitehead, Clerical Assistant 

Ann C. Bond, Clerical Assistant 

Dune G. Covington, Finance Secretary 

Jo R. Patton, Clerical Assistant 

Ellen J. Williams, Clerical Assistant 

James S. BARKSDiLE, Clerical Assistant 

(ID 



3m 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction v 

How P.L. 480 programs operate 1 

A brief history of P.L. 480 5 

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended 

(P.L. 480) 15 

Statistical tables relating to P.L. 480 33 

(HI) 



Digitized by tiie Internet Arciiive 
in 2013 



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INTRODUCTION 



America's foreign food assistance is provided under the authority 
of P.L. 480, the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act 
of 1954. 

P.L. 480, popularly called the Food for Peace program, consists of 
two operative titles. 

Under title I, the Commodity Credit Corporation, a public lending 
institution within the U.S. Department of Agriculture, makes loans 
on highly favorable terms to finance the sale of U.S. agricultural 
commodities to developing nations. 

Title II provides authorit}^ for the President to buy American 
farm products and donate them to American voluntar^^ agencies, the 
World Food Program, or to foreign governments for distribution to 
needy individuals abroad. 

For over 20 years our Food for Peace program has served as a 
model of humanitarian food assistance. Not onl}' have concessional 
sales been an important factor in the expansion of markets for our 
farm products abroad, but food assistance has provided essential 
help for the poorest countries of the world to reach for self -sustained 
economic growth. 

Every year almost 90 million people benefit from maternal and 
child care, school lunch, food for work, and other humanitarian 
programs. For millions of disaster victims throughout the world, 
Food for Peace shipments have meant life itself. In more than 100 
countries throughout the world, the burlap bags of farm commodities 
marked with the phrase, ''Given by the People of the United States 
of America" are a familiar reminder that Am. erica still practices the 
ethic of sharing its abundance. 

Over the years. Congress has modified P.L. 480 to meet changes in 
the world food situation and supply and demand conditions in the 
United States. 

The objectives of the program are outlined in section 2 of the Act 
itself. Broadly stated, they are: 

• expanding international trade; 

• developing and expanding overseas markets for American farm 
products; 

• preventing or alleviating malnutrition and hunger throughout 
the world ; 

• encouraging economic development and improving food pro- 
duction in less developed countries ; 

• providing an additional outlet for the products of American 
farms and ranches, especially in times of surplus; and 

• advancing the objectives of U.S. foreign polic3\ 

The emphasis on any one objective will vary, over time, as cir- 
cumstances vary over the years. 

(V) 



VI 

Exports under P.L. 480 agreements in the past have increased 
overall U.S. agricultural exports when there has been a need to do 
so. Most agreements also require the recipient country to buy specified 
quantities on a commercial basis from the world market, in many 
cases from the United States. 

In order to provide those interested in and working with our Food 
for Peace program ^vith an updated version of P.L. 480, the Com- 
mittee on Agriculture and Forestry has compiled P.L. 480, as amended 
(most recently, by the International Development and Food Assistance 
Act of 1975), along ^^dth background material on the operations of our 
Food for Peace efforts. 

It is the hope of the Committee that this material will provide 
useful background and current reference to those interested in P.L. 4S0 
legislative and program activities. 

P.L. 480 traditionally has been used to increase the export of U.S. 
agricultural commodities and suppor tf arm income b}' providing con- 
cessional terms for countnes unable to buy on commercial terms. 

The program also has supported market development activities in 
both recipient countries and other countries where P.L. 480 earnings 
could be used. Title I has been the primary means of achieving this 
objective although the programs under title II have market develop- 
ment implications. 

Another objective of the program is to promote economic develop- 
ment in less developed countries. 

Under title I agreements, the funds generated by the P.L. 480 com- 
modities are used by the recipient government to promote economic 
development, including agricultural self-help projects. Commodities 
donated under title II are often used for food-for-work projects wliich 
are part of overall development plans. 

In recent 3'ears, P.L. 480 shipments have leveled off at about 
SI billion, down from a high of SLo bilhon in the mid-sLxties. How- 
ever, considerably smaller quantities are being shipped due to sub- 
stantially higher prices for the commodities programed. 

Whereas the annual average volume of shipments between 1968 
and 1972 was over 11 million metric tons, the average betvv'een 
1973 and 1975 fell to about 5.5 million metric tons. 



HOW P.L. 480 PROGRAMS OPERATE 



Title I 



Title I of P.L. 480 provides for concessional sales of agricultural 
commodities to friendly countries. Until the end of 1971, the law 
permitted sales agreements which provided for payment in local 
currencies on delivery. Since 1972, sales agreements have been ne- 
gotiated only for long-term credit repayable in dollars or in cur- 
rencies convertible to dollars. Convertible local currency agree- 
ments usually allow a longer period for repayment than dollar credit 
agreements and are used when a complete transition from local cur- 
rency sales to dollar credit is not feasible. 

Dollar credit agreements may provide for a specific down payment 
in dollars, foreign currency or both, upon delivery of the commodities. 
The balance of the agreement is repaid in dollars in approximately 
equal annual installments over a period of up to 20 years. Such agree- 
ments may also include a grace period of up to 2 years, during which 
principal pajmients are not required. 

Repayment under convertible local currency agreements is in 
dollars or, at the option of the United States, in convertible foreign 
currency. The maximum term available under this t3^pe of financing 
is 40 years, including a grace period up to 10 years. A down payment, 
in dollars, foreign currency, or both, also may be required in this kind 
of agreement. Interest rates under both types of financing are set by 
law at minimums of 2 percent during a grace period and 3 percent 
thereafter. The minimum rates have been used in the majorit}'' of 
title I sales agreements. 

Although the Commodity Credit Corporation finances the sale and 
export of commodities under title I, actual sales are made by private 
U.S. suppliers to foreign importers, government agencies, or private 
trade entities. 

Section 401 of the Act provides that the Secretary of Agriculture 
must determine the availability for concessional export of commodities 
included in sales agreements. In determining this availability, the 
Secretary must consider U.S. productive capacity, domestic require- 
ments, farm and consumer price levels, adequacy of carryover stocks, 
and anticipated exports for dollars. 

Each sales agreement under title I begins with a request from a 
foreign government or private trade entity for commodities. The 
request is generally submitted to the American Embass}^ in the host 
country, and is then transmitted directly to Washington accom- 
panied by recommendations of the Embassy and supporting evi- 
dence of need for commodities in excess of likely domestic production 
and normal commercial imports. Such factors as production and 
consumption patterns, export of similar commodities and the supply 
position of the participating country are considered. 

(1) 



In Washington the request is forwarded to the Department of 
Agriculture, where the submission is analyzed. From that analysis, 
USDA develops a program which provides for suitable commodity 
quantities, establishes levels of required commercial imports from 
the United States and friendly countries (usual marketing require- 
ments), and includes self-help measures suitable to the needs of the 
requesting country. The program proposal also deals with the use of 
sales proceeds to be generated under the proposed agreement, on the 
basis of recommendations of AID, and incorporates all other neces- 
sary details. 

The Department of Agriculture submits its proposed program to 
the P.L. 480 Interagency Staff Committee (ISC). This committee is 
chaired by the Department of Agriculture and includes Treasury, 
State/AID, Defense, Commerce, and Office of Management and 
Budget representatives. The committee considers factor: bearing on 
the program, such as: 

a. The country's need for the commodit}^, foreign exchange 
position, and overall economic status; 

b. The possible impact of a title I program on U.S. dollar sales 
and other export programs, as well as U.S. needs for local 
currency; 

c. The effect of such a program on export markets of friendly 
supply countries ; and 

d. The relationship of the proposed program to the foreign aid 
program and the foreign policy of the United States. 

Once committee approval is obtained, the proposed credit terms 
are submitted to the National Advisor}^ Council on International 
Monetary and Financial Policies and consultations with friendly 
third countries are undertaken. Congressional agricultural committees 
are informed of the proposed program at this time. Negotiating in- 
structions are prepared in Washington and forvrarded to the con- 
cerned U.S. Embassy. Negotiations are carried on by the Ambassador 
or his designees with officials of the host government. Private trade 
entity agreements follow the same procedure but are generally 
negotiated in Washington by officials of USDA and the requesting 
organizations. 

Once a title I sales agreement is negotiated and signed, purchase 
authorizations are issued by the Department of Agriculture. The 
purchase authorizations provide for financing of specific commodity 
sales and specify conditions under which financing will be made avail- 
able. Where the applicable sales agreement provides for a relatively 
small amount of a commodity, a purchase authorization may be issued 
for the full amount in the agreement. Where agreement amounts are 
large, authorizations are generally spaced over the supply period, which 
is usually either a calendar year or a U.S. Government fiscal year. For 
private trade entity agreements, purchase authorizations are timed to 
coincide with the project requirements of the private trade entit3^ 

Concurrently with the issuance of a purchase authorization, the 
importing country or private trade entity generally apphes to the 
Commodity Credit Corporation for a "letter of commitment." The 
letter of commitment is a document issued by the CCC to the 
importing country's designated American bank, promising to reimburse 
the bank for any paj^ments made to American suppliers for approved 



sales made under the purchase authorization. When an agreement 
requires an initial payment, the letter of commitment provides 
financing only for the balance of a purchase authorization's value. 
For example, when title I sales agreements provide for an initial 
payment of 5 percent, all purchase authorizations issued under that 
agreement will indicate CCC financing of 95 percent, and the CCC will 
not issue letters of commitment in excess of 95 percent of the value 
of the authorization. The remainder must be paid by the importing 
country, usually through letters of credit. 

Seven days after issuance of the purchase authorization, contracts 
may be signed between an importer and U.S. commodity suppliers. 
All sales contracts are subject to review and approval by USD A to 
insure that they meet the requirements of purchase authorizations 
and fall within a prevailing range of market prices. Suppliers then 
deliver the commodities to vessels specified by the importing country, 
and obtain documents such as on-board bills of lading, inspection, and 
weight certificates, USDA Notice of Vessel Approval, etc., w^hich must 
be presented to the importing country's designated American bank 
for payment. The bank pays the supplier and forwards the required 
documents, including commodity title documents, to the ^'approved 
applicant," usually a bank. CCC notifies the American Embassy in 
the importing country of the disbursement. 

Title II 

Food donations are provided under title II to support mother and 
chiM feeding activities, school feeding projects, food-for-work, and 
emergency efforts to alleviate the sufferings of victims of natural 
and man-made disasters. 

Title II programs are carried out under a variety of arrangements. 
Each program must have a ''cooperating sponsor." The sponsor may 
be the government of a recipient country, a U.S. nonprofit voluntary 
agency or a combination of such agencies, or intergovernmental 
organizations such as the World Food Program of the United Nations. 

The administration of the title II program is shared jointly by 
the Agency for International Development (AID) and the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture (USDA). AID is generally responsible for 
program operations while USDA determines commodity availabilities 
together wdth their volumes and values. AID and USDA participate 
jointly in the programing process through the Interagency Staff 
Committee. With the exception of those commodities made available 
to voluntary agencies, USDA arranges ocean transportation for all 
title II commodities. 

Program proposals originate from the overseas staffs of U.S. non- 
profit voluntary agencies or from AID overseas missions, generally 
after a specific request by the recipient country. Program proposals 
submitted by voluntary agencies are coordinated at overseas posts 
with AID, Food for Peace ofl[icers or other U.S. staff members desig- 
nated for such responsibility. Such assigned or designated U.S. foreign 
service staff members advise and assist voluntary agencies in program 
development and implementation. They also receive, analyze, and 
comment on proposals for bilateral food grant assistance. U.S. over- 
seas missions also coordinate and cooperate with the representatives 

67-053—76 2 



of the United Nations agencies such as UNICEF, or the World Food 
Program regarding proposals for food grant assistance under multi- 
lateral arrangements. 

In addition, U.S. overseas missions analj^ze and comment on all 
food grant proposals as they relate to the host country's development 
objectives. Finally, the missions are responsible for monitoring all 
voluntary agency and govemment-to-government programs. 

Based on these above responsibilities and arrangements, AID in 
Washington coordinates the approval of programs through the 
Interagency Staff Committee, authorizes the implementation of 
approved programs, and initiates the procedures which result in 
title II commodities becoming available to cooperating sponsors and 
recipients. The program coordination process in Washington includes 
the Departments of Treasury and Commerce and the Office of Manage- 
ment and Budget. 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF P.L. 480 



THE EAKLY YEARS 

P.L. 480 is a product of the American farm. Recognizing that 
America's agricultural abundance could be put to work toward de- 
veloping commercial markets for our farm production and helping 
meet the food needs of the developing world, the Senate Committee 
on Agriculture and Forestry went to work in 1953 on legislation which 
would permit developing countries to purchase U.S. farm commodities 
on highly concessional terms for foreign currencies. 

On July 24, 1953, Senator Andrew Schoeppel of Kansas, from the 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, reported S. 2475, a bill to 
authorize the President to use agricultural commodities to improve 
the foreign relations of the United States and for other purposes. 
Four days later, the bill passed the Senate by voice vote. 

Referred to the House Committee on Agriculture, the bill was not 
acted upon before the adjournment of the first session of the 83rd 
Congress and was carried over into the second session. 

In the interim, support grew for enactment of a foreign food as- 
sistance program. 

Representative Clifford Hope reported an expanded version of S. 
2475 out of the House Committee on Agriculture on June 9, 1954, 
and it was passed by the House on June 16, by voice vote. 

On June 22, 1954, the Senate requested a conference with the House 
and appointed Senators Aiken, Young, Th^^e, vSchoeppel, Ellender, 
Johnston of South Carolina, Holland, and Anderson as conferees. 

The House agreed to a conference on the same date and appointed 
Congressmen Hope, August H. Andresen, Hill, Cooley, and Poage. 

On June 29, 1954, the Conference Report (H. Rept. 1947) was 
submitted to the House. Both Houses of Congress approved the report 
of the Conference Committee on June 30, and the bill was signed 
into law on July 10, 1954. 

PURPOSES OF P.L. 480 

As originall}^ enacted, title I of P.L. 480 provided for the sale of 
U.S. agricultural commodities to foreign governments for local cur- 
rencies. 

Title I authorized the President to use, with the agreement of 
the recipient country, foreign currencies earned from the sale of 
agricultural commodities for eight purposes: for promoting economic 
development, for developing new markets for American farm products 
abroad, for the payment of U.S. obligations abroad, for international 
educational exchange, for the procurement of military supplies and 
military expenditures abroad, for carrying out programs of U.S. 

(5) 



6 

tjrovernment agencies, grants for financing the purchase of goods or 
services for other countries, and purchase of strategic materials. At 
least 10 percent of the currencies so generated were to be subject to 
congressional appropriation. 

Title II provided for the donation of food commodities for famine 
relief or other emergency needs abroad. 

Title III authorized food donations for emergency situations within 
the United States. Title III also permitted the Commodity Credit 
Corporation to make commodities available to nonprofit organizations 
for distribution in the United States or abroad. Finally, title III 
permitted the President to barter agricultural commodities for strate- 
gic materials or other goods not produced in the United States. 

P.L. 480 extended in 1957 and amended to provide authority 
for the President to enter into barter arrangements with Soviet satellite 
nations and to permit foreign currencies generated under title I sales 
to finance projects which would promote consumption of U.S. agri- 
cultural commodities. This latter arrangement, which came to be 
known as ''Cooley loans" further enhanced the development aspect of 
P.L. 480 and increased the private sector's role. 

Restrictions on countries which could receive assistance under 
P.L. 480 were further liberalized under the 1958 extension of the Act. 



Throughout the history of P.L. 480, the Senate Committee on 
Agriculture and Forestr\' has led efforts to strengthen and improve 
the humanitarian aspects of the program. 

In 1956, Chairman Ellender commissioned Senator Humphrey to 
make an extensive study of the program. Among the recommendations 
of this report, which was submitted to the Committee on February 18, 
1958, was the creation of a '"'Peace Food Administrator" at the Wliite 
House level. 

The informal title of the program Avas proposed by President 
Eisenhower in his January 1959 farm message to the Congress in 
which he referred to the use of American farm commodities to promote 
the well-being of friendl}^ countries throughout the world as ''using 
food for peace." 

The President announced that all the pi-ograms using surplus 
agricultural commodities abroad would be combined under one general 
administration into the Food for Peace program. In the extension of 
P.L. 480 that year, the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry 
changed the short title of the Act to read the "Food for Peace Act of 
1959." 

MARKET DEVELOPMENT 

In addition to extending and increasing the title I and title II 
authorization, the 1959 legislation provided that at least 5 percent of 
the title I sales proceeds be made available for agricultural market 
development activities. 

The 1959 extension also redefined several other specified uses of 
foreign currency proceeds. This legislation added a requirement that 
any commodity which has been determined to be in surplus must be 
first made available for donation to needy persons in the United States, 
insofar as possible, before being made available under title I. 



A requirement was also placed on titles II and III to identify 
commodities made available abroad under each program to be iden- 
tified as being furnished by the people of the United States. 

The most important change in the 1959 legislation was the addition 
of a new title IV which authorized long-term credit sales of agricultural 
commodities for dollars to friendty nations. Commodities could be 
delivered annually for periods up to 10 3"ears with pa3Tnents to be 
made over a period up to 20 ^''ears. This authority for long-term dollar 
credit was not utilized until 1961, but transition from sales for foreign 
currencies was mandated in the 1966 legislation, the dollar credit 
arrangement now exclusively dominates the P.L. 480 sales program. 

DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE 

Responding to a growing awareness of the development needs of 
the poor nations of the world, the Agriculture Committees of the 
Congress began to redirect P.L. 480 to stress the humanitarian and 
development aspects of the program. 

In 1960, title II, which at that time was limited to disaster and 
emergency food relief, was extended for one year to provide for the use 
of commodities in programs wherebj^ food might be used as payment for 
the poor and jobless in public works projects in developing countries. 
This use, which came to be called ''food for work," became permanent 
authority under section 202 the following year. 

The Private Trade Entity program (PTE) was established by an 
amendment to title IV in 1962. Under this authority the Secretary of 
Agriculture is permitted to enter into agreements with U.S. or foreign 
private enterprise to finance the sale of U.S. agricultural comn^odities 
for dollar credits. The proceeds accruing from resale of such com- 
modities in a developing nation must then be applied to a specified 
project to improve consumption of U.S. farm products or to con- 
tribute to the economic development of the country concerned. 

FIGHTING HUNGER 

The Agriculture Committees made sweeping changes in 1964 and 
1966 which further strengthened the development and humanitarian 
aspects of the program. 

In the 1964 report of the Committee on legislation to extend P.L. 
480, the program was claimed to be of ''. . . incalculable benefit to many 
recipient countries of the free world as well as to the United States ..." 
in terms of ''opening . . . effective outlets for America's abundance ..." 
and for enabling the ". . . United States to combat famine, malnutri- 
tion, and hunger in less developed countries and to promote their 
growth — a growth it is hoped, that eventual!}^ will mean enlarged 
commicrcial export markets for U.S. agriculture and industry." 

In order to better address these objectives, the Congress made sev- 
eral changes in the extension of 1964. The limitations on the accumula- 
tion of currencies generated from title I sales which could be used for 
Cooley loans was eliminated and the percentage of foreign currencies 
for use by U.S. agencies abroad was increased from 10 percent to 20 
percent. 

The Act was further amended to provide that foreign currencies be 
convertible into dollars insofar as those currencies weie not needed for 
the purposes described in the Act. 



The 1964 extending legislation also amended the terms of sale under 
title I by providing that the exchange rate used in sales for local 
currencies shall be the highest rate obtainable by any other nation. 

Another amendment provided that long-term dollar credit sales 
under title IV could not be more favorable to the recipient country 
than the terms extended for development loans under the Foreign 
Assistance Act. 

The 1964 legislation placed a prohibition on the sale of title I com- 
modities to communist-controlled governments, countries trading 
with Cuba, countries which are involved in military aggression against 
nations with which the United States has diplomatic ties, and countries 
using funds from the United States for purposes which are against 
American interests. Internal securit}^ was added to the Act as an ac- 
ceptable use of foreign currencies generated from title I sales. In 
addition, congressional scrutiny over agreements providing for the 
grant of foreign currencies for other than military purposes or any use 
of loan repayments was increased by requiring the review of all such 
agreements hy the House and Senate Agriculture Committees. 

The 1964 legislation also established an advisory committee to 
oversee and advise the President on the status and use of foreign 
currencies accrued under title I, composed of the chairmen and 
ranking minority members of the House and Senate Agriculture 
Committees and the chief executive officers of the Bureau of the 
Budget, Agency for International Development, and Department' of 
Agriculture. While the functions and membership of the Committee 
were subsequently expanded, this body has met infrequentl}^ 

This legislation established authority for the purchase of foreign 
currencies accruing under title I to be used to carry self-help activities 
under donation programs. 

Finally, the 1964 extension also included permanent authority for 
the Commodity Credit Corporation to finance the differential between 
U.S. and world shipping rates which arises as a result of the require- 
ment that 50 percent of title I shipments are transported on U.S. 
vessels. 

A FUNDAMENTAL SHIFT 

The most comprehensive restructuring of the law was accomplished 
in 1966. Congress com.bined title I foreign currenc}^ sales and title IV 
long-term dollar credit sales into the present title I. 

A progressive transition away from sales for foreign currencies was 
required under these amendments and a mechanism b}^ which the 
United States could accept convertible local currencies over 40 years 
with a 10-year grace period was authorized to ease the transition 
requirement. The Act was also amended to require a down paA ment 
of at least 5 percent on title I sales whenever practicable. 

The reorganization also folded title III (donations through non- 
profit voluntary and international agencies) into title II (donations 
for famine relief). The barter authority remained under title III. 

A significant addition was a mandate that its assistance be used to 
the maximum extent possible to complement the development activi- 
ties within the recipient countries. These amendments required that 
countries receiving assistance under title I demonstrate an interest and 
an effort to develop their agricultural production potential. Twenty 



9 

percent of the foreign currencies accumulated under title I sales were 
required to be used for such ''self-help" programs in these countries. 

It was at this time that the Agriculture Committees formally re- 
moved the emphasis of the program from surplus disposal toward 
market development and humanitarian and development assistance. 

Maternal and child care activities and population control were 
added to the list of programs which could be funded with foreign cur- 
rencies grants under title I. Up to 25 percent of the U.S. heJd foreign 
currencies were specified for sale to American tourists in excess cur- 
rency countries, and most of the foreign currency uses were made 
subject to the congressional appropriations process. 

The 1966 extension also added countries trading with North Viet- 
nam to the list of nations ineligible for title I assistance. 

Title I was amended to require that the President take steps to 
assure that the United States obtain a fair share of any increased 
agricultural purchases of a participating developing country. The 
title III barter program w^as amended to prevent transshipments of 
U.S. agricultural commodities obtained under the authority of that 
title. 

The 1966 extension reduced the membership of the congressional 
executive Advisory Committee, provided for four meetings of the 
committee annually, and specified rotation of the chairmanship. 

POPULATION PROGRAMS 

The 1968 extension made several changes. The Senate Committee 
on Agriculture and Forestry amended the Act to provide that 5 
percent of title I local currencies be made available for voluntary 
population control programs, and established voluntary population 
control program.s as one of the self-help measures to be considered 
before entering into a title I agreement. 

The Committee also added language to the Act requiring that at 
least 2 percent of the local currency received from each country be 
set aside to finance international, educational and cultural exchange 
activities and activities of American educational institutions under 
various education acts. 

The amounts of foreign currencies needed for five selected currency 
uses were required to be specified under the title I sales agreement. 
Where currencies are so used such amount would be paid at the time 
the commodities were delivered and would then be considered as 
an advance payment of the earliest installments of such agreements. 

Up to 50 percent of the foreign currencies earned from the sale of 
title I commodities could be converted for sale to U.S. or participating 
country contractors to pay wages earned in public works projects and 
50 percent of the foreign currencies could be converted for sale to U.S. 
importers who buy materials from the participating country. 

The 1968 extension authorized the use of foreign currencies for 
carrying out programs to control rodents, insects, weeds, and other 
animal and plant pests. 

Finally, the extension tightened the prohibition on sales to North 
Vietnam by excluding any exporter doing business directly or indirectly 
with that country from title I financing. 



10 

INTO THE 1970'S 

Between 1968 and 1975, P.L. 489 was amended infrequently. 

The Agricultural Act of 1970 extended the authorization for the 
program and added uses of foreign currencies by U.S. agencies for 
educational and cultural exchange to those uses which may be sub- 
ject to the congressional appropriations process. 

The Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 extended 
P.L. 480 through 1977 with minor amendments. It required that the 
President assure that commercial supplies were available to meet 
demands developed through P.L. 480 programs. Another amendment 
prohibited sales or donations to North Vietnam unless specifically 
authorized by act of Congress enacted after July 1, 1973. 

Amendments to the Foreign Assistance Acts of 1973 and 1974 
affected the title I program. The Foreign Assistance Act of 1973 
prohibitied the use of foreign currency proceeds from loan repayments 
to be used for common defense or military purposes. This effectively 
repealed the common defense currency uses of P.L. 480. The Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1974 provided that, for fiscal 3^ear 1975, not more 
than 30 percent of U.S. foreign food assistance be made available to 
countries other than those designated by the United Nations as 
"most seriously affected" b}^ the current economic crisis. 

THE HUMANITARIAN PHASE 

Legislative jurisdiction of P.L. 480 was modified in the House of 
Representatives in an overall reorganization for the 94th Congress. 

The Committee on Agriculture retained jurisdiction over the 
program's acquisition of farm commodities and other domestic 
operations in the United States, and the Committee on International 
Relations was given jurisdiction over its foreign distribution aspects. 

The House Committee on International Relations in 1975 initiated 
several amendments to foreign assistance and food assistance pro- 
grams; in the Senate, the bil) was considered and amended by, in 
turn, the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on 
Agriculture and Forestry. 

The result was the International Development and Food Assistance 
Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-161), which amended P.L. 480 in several ways, 
continuing the strengthening of the program's humanitarian and 
agricultural development objectives. 

At least 75 percent of P.L. 480 title I programing is to be assigned 
to those countries wdth per capita incom.es of $300 or less annually, a 
criterion which replaced the 1974 language which used a United 
Nations list of most seriously affected nations as the basis for pro- 
graming and directed 75 percent of title I programing to these nations. 

The new law also directed the President to submit to the House and 
Senate Committees on Agriculture and International Affairs, by 
November 1 of each year, a revised global assessment of food produc- 
tion and needs, along with an updated program of food assistance for 
the current fiscal 3"ear which reflected the availability of food to meet 
the need. 

In addition, it directed the President to seek international agreement 
subject to congressional approval, on a sj'stem of food reserves to 
meet emergency food shortages, with strong recommendations that 
it safeguard farmers and consumers against market price disruptions. 



11 

The new law also urges the President to maintain a significant 
United States contribution toward the World Food Conference 
target of at least 10 million tons of food assistance annualh', and urges 
him to encourage other donor countries to increase and maintain their 
contributions. 

Other 1975 amendments are designed to encourage self-help in 
recipient comitries to increase farm production, especially through 
small family agriculture, and improve facilities for transportation, 
storage, and distribution of food, and to reduce population growth. 

The President would have authority to waive repayment of part of 
title I loans provided that the recipient country used the proceeds for 
population control or improving local food self-sufficiency, up to 15 
percent of the total value of all title I agreements. 

The Act deleted a specific provision for waiver of the ban on title I 
sales to countries dealing with Cuba and North Vietnam, and sub- 
stituted a provision for the President to waive the ban if he finds it in 
the national interest to do so — a v/aiver similar to that in the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961. The President would be required to report any 
such waiver to the Congress within 10 days. 

Also repealed was a provision for the use of foreign currency pro- 
ceeds for internal security purposes, a provision which had been 
nullified, in effect, by section 40 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1973. 

Another new provision requires the U.S. to emphasize the use of 
foreign currency proceeds from title I sales for activities which improve 
the lives of the poorest in recipient countries. 

The amendments expanded the advisory committee created in 
1964 to include also the chairmen and ranking minority members of 
the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and the House Com- 
mittee on International Relations, and allovv^ed all members to desig- 
nate alternates to represent them at committee meetings. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF 19 75 A:MENDMENTS 

The International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1975 
(P.L. 94-161) added five subparagraphs to the general policy state- 
ment of P.L. 480 to provide that, in furnishing food aid under the 
Act, the President shall : 

(1) give priority consideration in meetmg urgent food needs abroad 
to the requirements of those countries most seriously affected by food 
shortages, and which are unable to meet those requirements through 
normal commercial purchases ; 

(2) continue to urge other donor countries to increase their partici- 
pation in efforts to address food needs of the developing world; 

(3) relate U.S. assistance to self-help by the aid-receiving countries 
toward increasing their own agricultural production as well as im- 
proving their facilities for transportation, storage, and distribution 
of food commodities; 

(4) assure that special consideration in the allocation of commodities 
or concessional financing under P.L. 480 is given to the potential for 
expanding export markets for U.S. agricultural commodities; and 

(5) give appropriate recognition to and support of a strong American 
farm economy in providing for the food security of consumers in the 
United States and throughout the world. 

67-053—76 3 



12 

Referring to the World Food Conference recommendation that 
donor countries provide a total of at least 10 million tons of food as- 
sistance annually, a new section 3 urges the President to maintain a 
significant U.S. contribution to this target and to encourage other 
countries to maintain and increase their contributions as well. 

Section 103 of P.L. 480 was amended in several respects. 

Subsection 103(a) was amended to require the President, in exer- 
cising title I authority, to take into account self-help efforts aimed at 
increasing agricultural production, especiall}^ through small family 
farm agriculture, improving their facilities for transportation, storage, 
and distribution of food commodities, and reducing population growth 
rates. 

Subsection 103(b) was amended to permit foreign currency pro- 
ceeds from sales under title I which are used for the specified pur- 
poses of section 106(b)(2) to be considered as advance payment 
of title I credits in accordance with agreements between the United 
States and the foreign government. 

The second proviso of subsection 103(d) was deleted. This subsec- 
tion provided a waiver under specified circumstances of the prohibi- 
tion on title I sales to countries which sell or furnish goods to, or 
permit their ships to carry goods to or from, Cuba or North Vietnam. 
In lieu of this proviso there was inserted a general national interest 
waiver authority of the same type now applicable to assistance under 
the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. The President is required to re- 
port the determination of any such waiver to the Congress within 10 
days of such action. 

Section 104 was amended by repealing subsection (c), which pro- 
vides for the use of local currency proceeds to procure equipment, 
materials, facilities, and services for the common defense including 
internal security. The subsection already had been nullified, in effect, 
by section 40 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1973. 

Section 106(b) of P.L. 480 was amended by adding a requirement 
that the United States, in negotiating agreements with countries 
receiving title I agricultural commodities, emphasize the use of foreign 
currency proceeds, from the sale of those commodities, for activities 
which directly improve the lives of the poorest of their people and 
their capacity to participate in the development of their countries. 

Section 106(b) was also amended to authorize the Executive Branch 
to conclude agreements under which the use of local currency proceeds 
for agreed development purposes may, to that extent, be deemed pay- 
ment of the dollar obligation to the U.S. Government. This amend- 
ment directs that, in determining the use of proceeds under this 
arrangement, greatest emphasis shall be placed on carrying out pro- 
grams of agricultural development, rural development, nutrition and 
the activities described under section 406(a)(1) of P.L. 480 in those 
countries which are undertaking self-help measures (enumerated in 
section 109 of P.L. 480), consistent with the policy objectives of P.L. 
480 and sections 103 and 104 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. 

For any fiscal year, payments under this provision may not exceed 
15 percent of the total value of all title I agreements. This new author- 
ity is prospective only and is not to be used to modify existing 
agreements. 

Uses of local currencies under this provision must be described in 
reports required by section 408 of P.L. 480 and section 657 of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. 



13 

Section 109(a) of P.L. 480 was amended to add a requirement 
that, in considering self-help measures by developing countries before 
entering into title I sales agreements with these countries, the Presi- 
dent shall take into particular account the extent to which such 
measures are being carried out so as to contribute directly to develop- 
ment progress in poor rural areas and to enable the poor to participate 
actively in increased production through small farm agriculture. 

Another new section was added to title II of P.L. 480 providing 
that, except in the case of famine or other urgent or extraordinary 
relief requirements, no assistance shall be provided under title II of 
P.L. 480 pursuant to agreements providing for the generation of 
foreign currency proceeds unless (1) the recipient country is under- 
taking self-help measures in accordance with section 109 of P.L. 480, 
(2) the specific uses to which the foreign currencies are to be put are 
set forth in a written agreement between the United States and the 
recipient country, and (3) such agreements provide that the curren- 
cies will be used for the purposes specified in section 103 of the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. 

Information on such uses must be included in the reports required 
by section 408 of P.L. 480 and section 657 of the Foreign Assistance 
Act. 

Section 407 of P.L. 480 was amended to allow members of the P.L. 
480 Advisory Committee to designate persons to represent them on 
the Committee. 

The Advisory Committee, as presently established under section 
407 of P.L. 480, is composed of the Secretary of State, the Secretary 
of the Treasury, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Director of the 
Office of Management and Budget, the Administrator of the Agency 
for International Development, the Chairman and the ranking minor- 
ity member of the House Committee on Agriculture and the House 
Committee on International Relations, and the Chairman and rank- 
ing minority member of both the Senate Committee on Agriculture 
and Forestry and the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 

Section 408 of P.L. 480 was amended by changing the annual 
report required by this section to a ''fiscal year" rather than "calendar 
year" basis. 

Two new subsections, (b) and (c) were also added to section 408. 

Subsection 408(b) requires the President, in his annual report to 
designated committees of the Congress of planned programing of food 
assistance for each fiscal year, to include a global assessment of food 
production and needs; self-help steps being taken under P.L. 480, 
section 109(a) ; steps being taken to encourage other donors to increase 
their food assistance efforts; and the relationship between P.L. 480 
food assistance and other assistance provided to each country b}' the 
United States and other donors. 

Subsection 408(c) requires the President to submit to the House 
Committee on Agriculture, the House Committee on International 
Relations, the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry and the 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations not later than November 1 
of each year a revised global assessment of food production and needs, 
and revised planned programing of food assistance for the current 
fiscal year, reflecting to the maximum feasible extent the actual 
availabilities of food commodities for assistance. 



14 

A new section 412 in P.L. 480 authorizes and encourages the 
President to seek international agreement, subject to congressional 
approval, for a system of food reserves to meet food shortage emer- 
gencies and to provide insurance against unexpected food production 
shortages, v,dth costs of such a system to be equitably shared among 
nations, and fhm safeguards to be given to farmers and consumers 
against market price disruption therefrom. 

A new section 213 calls upon the President to strengthen the 
efforts of the United States to carry out the recommendations of the 
World Food Conference and requires the President to submit a 
detailed report to the Congress not later than November 1, 1976, 
describing the steps he has taken to carry out the recommendations 
of the Conference. 

Section 406 of P.L. 480 was amended to transfer the authority to 
establish and administer a program of farmer-to-farmer assistance 
from the Department of Agriculture to the President and provides 
that the program be coordinated with other foreign assistance activi- 
ties of the United States. 

EXTENSION IN 1977 

The current authorization for activities conducted under P.L. 480 
wni expire on December 31, 1977. The Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry of the Senate and the appropriate Committees of the House 
of Representatives expect to take up ;legislation in 1977 to extend 
the authorization. 



AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND 

ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED 

(7 U.S.C. 1691-1692. 1701-1709, 1721-1725, 1731-1736d) 

Public Law 480 — 83d Congress 

AN ACT To increase the consumption of United States agricultural commodities 
in foreign countries, to improve the foreign relations of the United States, and 
for other purposes 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as 
the '^Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954'\ 

Ssc. 2. The Congress hereby declares it to be the policy of the 
United States to expand international trade; to develop and expand 
export markets for United States agricultural commodities; to use the 
abundant agricultural productivity of the United States to combat 
hunger and malnutrition and to encourage economic development in 
the developing countries, with particular emphasis on assistance to 
those countries that are determined to improve their ovrn agricultural 
production; and to promote in other ways the foreign policy of the 
United States. (7 U.S.C. 1691.) 

In furnishing food aid under this Act, the President shall — 

(1) give priority consideration, in helping to meet urgent food 
needs abroad, to making available the maximum feasible volume 
of food commodities (with appropriate regard to domestic price 
and supply situations) required by those countries most seriously 
affected by food shortages and by inability to meet immediate 
food requirements on a normal commercial basis; 

(2) continue to urge all traditional and potential new donors 
of food, fertilizer, or the means of financing these commodities 
to increase their participation in efforts to address the emergency 
and longer term food needs of the developing world; 

(3) relate United States assistance to efforts by aid-receiving 
countries to increase their ovvTI agricultural production, with 
emphasis on development of small, family farm agriculture, and 
improve their facilities for transportation, storage, and distribu- 
tion of food commodities; 

(4) give special consideration to the potential for expanding 
markets for America's agricultural abundance abroad in the allo- 
cation of commodities or concessional financing; and 

(5) give appropriate recognition to and support of a strong 
and viable American farm economy in providing for the food 
security of consumers in the United States and throughout the 
world. 

Sec. 3. Pursuant to the World Food Conference recommendation 
that donor countries provide a total of at least ten million tons of 
food assistance to needy nations annually, the President is urged to 

(15) 



16 

maintain a significant United States contribution to this goal and 
to encourage other countries to maintain and increase their contribu- 
tions as well. 

Title I 

Sec. 101. In order to carry out the policies and accomplish the 
objectives set forth in section 2 of this Act, the President is authorized 
to negotiate and carry out agreements with friendly countries to 
provide for the sale of agricultural commodities for dollars on credit 
terms or for foreign currencies. (7 U.S.C. 1701.) Regulations: 7 CFR 
Part 17. 

Sec. 102. For the purpose of carrying out agreements concluded 
under this Act the Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized to 
finance the sale and exportation of agricultural commodities whether 
from private stocks or from stocks of the Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration: Provided, That the Commodity Credit Corporation shall 
not finance the sale and export of agricultural commodities under this 
Act for any exporter which is engaging in, or in the six months im- 
mediately preceding the apphcation for such financing has engaged in, 
any sales, trade, or commerce with North Vietnam, or with any 
resident thereof, or which owtis or controls any company which is 
engaging in, or in such period has engaged in, any such sales, trade, 
or commerce, or which is owTied or controlled by any company or 
person which is engaging in, or which in such period has engaged in, 
any such sales, trade, or commerce neither directly or through any 
branch, subsidiary, affiliate, or associated company: Provided further, 
That such application for financing must be accompanied by a state- 
ment in wliich are Usted by name, address, and chief executive officers 
all branches, afiiHates, subsidiaries and associated companies, foreign 
and domestic, in which the appUcant has a controlling interest and 
similar information for all companies which either directly or tiirough 
subsidiaries or otherwise have a controlhng interest in the appHcant 
company. (7 U.S.C. 1702.) 

Sec. 103. In exercising the authorities conferred upon him by this 
title, the President shall — 

(a) Take into account efforts of friendly countries to help them- 
selves toward a greater degree of self-rehance, including efforts to 
increase their own agricultural production, especially through small, 
family farm agriculture, to improve their facilities for transportation, 
storage, and distribution of food commodities, and to reduce their 
rate of population growth; 

(b) Take steps to assure a progressive transition from sales for 
foreign currencies to sales for dollars (or to the extent that transition 
to sales for dollars under the terms applicable to such sales is not 
possible, transition to sales for foreign currencies on credit terms no 
less favorable to the United States than those for development loans 
made under section 201 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as 
amended, and on terms which permit conversion to dollars at the ex- 
change rate applicable to the sales agreement) at a rate whereby the 
transition can be completed by December 31, 1971: Provided, That, 
except where he determines that it would be inconsistent with the 
objectives of the Act, the President shall determine the amount of 
foreign currencies needed for the uses specified in subsection (a), (b). 



17 

(c), (e), and (li) of section 104, and in section 106(b)(2) and the agree- 
ments for such credit sales shall provide for payment of such amounts 
in dollars or in foreign currencies upon delivery of the agricultural 
commodities. Such payment may be considered as an advance payment 
of the earliest installments. 

(c) Take reasonable precautions to safeguard usual marketings of the 
United States and to assure that sales under this title will not unduly 
disrupt world prices of agricultural commodities or normal patterns of 
commercial trade with friendly countries ; 

(d) Make sales agreements only with those countries which he deter- 
mines to be friendly to the United States: Provided, That the President 
shall periodically review the status of those countries which are 
eligible under this subsection and report the results of such review to 
the Congress. As used in this Act, ''friendly country" shall not include 

(1) any country or area dominated or controlled by a foreign govern- 
ment or organization controlling a world Communist movement, or 

(2) for the purpose only of sales of agricultural commodities for 
foreign currencies under title I of this Act, any country or area domi- 
nated by a Communist government, or (3) for the purpose only of 
sales of agricultural commodities under title I of this Act, any nation 
which sells or furnishes or permits ships or aircraft under its registry 
to transport to or from Cuba or North Vietnam (excluding United 
States installations in Cuba) any equipment, materials, or com- 
modities so long as they are governed by a Communist regime: 
Provided, That this exclusion from the definition of "friendly country" 
may be waived by the President if he determines that such waiver 
is in the national interest and reports such determination to the 
Congress within 10 days of the date of such determination, or (4) 
for the purposes only of sales under title I of this Act the United 
Arab Republic, unless the President determines that such sale is in the 
national interest of the United States. No sales to the United Arab 
Republic shall be based upon the requirements of that nation for 
more than one fiscal year. The President shall keep the President of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives fully 
and currently informed with respect to sales made to the United 
Arab Republic under title I of this Act. Notwithstanding any other 
Act, the President may enter into agreements for the sale of agricul- 
tural commodities for dollars on credit terms under title I of this 
Act with countries which fall mthin the definition of "friendly coun- 
try" for the purpose of such sales and no sales under this Act shall 
be made with any country if the President finds such country is (a) 
an aggressor, in a military sense, against any country having diplo- 
matic relations with the United States, or (b) using funds, of any 
sort, from the United States for purposes mimical to the foreign 
policies of the United States; 

(e) Take appropriate steps to assure that private trade channels are 
used to the maximum extent practicable both with respect to sales 
from privately o\^Tied stocks and with respect to sales from stocks 
owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation and that small business 
has adequate and fair opportunity to participate in sales made under 
the authority of this Act; 

(f) Give special consideration to the development and expansion of 
foreign markets for United States agricultural commodities, with 



18 

appropriate emphasis on more adequate storage, handling, and food 
distribution facihties as well as long-term development of new and 
expanding markets by encouraging economic growth; 

(g) Obtain commitments from purchasing countries that will prevent 
resale or transshipment to other countries, or use for other than 
domestic purposes, of agricultural commodities purchased under this 
title, without specific approval of the President; 

(h) Obtain rates of exchange applicable to the sale of commodities 
under such agreements which are not less favorable than the highest of 
exchange rates legally obtainable in the respective countries and which 
are not less favorable than the highest of exchange rates obtainable by 
any other nation; 

(i) Promote progress toward assurance of an adequate food suppty by 
encouraging countries with which agreements are made to give higher 
emphasis to the production of food crops than to the production of such 
nonfood crops as are in world surplus ; 

(j) Exercise the authority contained in title I of this Act to assist 
friendly countries to be independent of domination of control by any 
world Communist movement. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as 
authorizing sales agreements under title I with any government or 
organization controlling a world Communist m^ovement or with an^^ 
country with which the United States does not have diplomatic 
relations ; 

(k) Whenever practicable require upon deliver}^ that not less than 
5 per centum of the purchase price of any agricultural commodities 
sold under title I of this Act be payable in dollars or in the types or 
kinds of currencies which can be converted into dollars; 

(1) Obtain commitments from friendl}^ purchasing countries that will 
insure, insofar as practicable, that food commodities sold for foreign 
currencies under title I of this Act shall be marked or identified at point 
of distribution or sale as being provided on a concessional basis to the 
recipient government through the generosit}^ of the people of the 
United States of America, and obtain commitments frcm. purchasing 
countries to publicize widely to then- people, by public media and other 
means, that the commodities are bemg provided on a concessional basis 
through the friendship of the American people as food for peace; 

(m) Require foreign currencies to be convertible to dollars to the 
extent consistent with the effectuation of the purposes of this Act, but 
in any event to the extent necessary to (1) permit that portion of such 
currencies made available for payment of United States obligations to 
be used to meet obligations or charges payable by the United States or 
any of its agencies to the government of the importing country or any 
of its agencies, and (2) in the case of excess currency countries, assure 
convertibility by sale to American tourists, or otherwise, of such addi- 
tional amount (up to twent^'-five per centum of the foreign currencies 
received pursuant to each agreement entered into after the effective 
date of the Food for Peace Act of 1966) as may be necessary to cover all 
normal expenditures of American tourists in the importing country; 

(n) Take maximum precautions to assure that sales for dollars on 
credit terms under this Act shall not displace an}^ sales of United States 
agricultural commodities which would otherwise be made for cash 
dollars; 



19 

(o) Take steps to assure that the United States obtains a fair share 
of any increase in commercial purchases of agricultural commodities by 
the purchasing country and that commercial supplies are available 
to meet demands developed through programs carried out under this 
Act; 

(p) Assure convertibility at such uniformly applied exchange rates 
as shall be agreed upon of up to 50 per centum of the foreign currencies 
received pursuant to each agreement by sale to United States or pur- 
chasing country contractors for payment of wages earned in the de- 
velopment and consummation of works of public improvement in the 
purchasing countrs^; and 

(q) Assure convertibility of up to 50 per centum of the foreign cur- 
rencies received pursuant to each agreement b}' sale of United States 
importers for the procurement of materials or commodities in the pur- 
chasing country. (7 U.S.C. 170o.) 

Sec. 104. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President 
may use or enter into agreements with foreign countries or interna- 
tional organizations to use the foreign currencies, including principal 
and interest from loan repa^'ments, which accrue in connection with 
sales for foreign currencies under this title for one or more of the fol- 
lowing purposes: 

(a) For paATnent of United States obligations (including obligations 
entered into pursuant to other legislation) ; 

(b) For carrving out proo:rams of United States Government agencies 
to— 

(1) help develop new markets for United States agricultural 
commodities on a mutually benefiting basis. From sale proceeds 
and loan repayments under this title not less than the equivalent 
of 5 per centum of the total sales made each year under this title 
shall be set aside in the amounts and kinds of foreign currencies 
>pecified by the Secretary of Agriculture and made available 
in advance for use as provided by this paragraph over such period 
of years as the Secretary of Agriculture determines will most 
effectively carrA^ out the purpose of tliis paragraph: Pronided, 
That the Secretary of Agriculture may release such amounts of 
the foreign currencies so set aside as he determines caimot be 
effectively used for agricultural market development purposes 
under this section, except that no release shall be made until 
the expiration of thirty days follo\\dng the date on which notice 
of such proposed release is transmitted by the President to the 
Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry and the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations and to the House Committee 
on Agriculture and the House Committee on International 
Relations, if transmitted while Congress is in session, or sixty 
days following the date of transmittal if transmitted wliile Con- 
gress is not in session. Provision shall be made in sale and loan 
agreements for the convertibility of such amount of the proceeds 
thereof (not less than 2 per centum) as the Secretaiy of Agricul- 
ture determines to be needed to carry out the purpose of this 
paragraph in those countries which are or offer reasonable 
potential of becoming dollar markets for United States agricul- 
tural commodities. Such sums shall be converted into the types 



67-053 — 76- 



20 

and kinds of foreign currencies as the Secretary deems necessary 
to carr}' out the provisions of this paragraph and such sums shall 
be deposited to a special Treasury account and shall not be made 
available or expended except for carrying out the provisions of 
this paragraph. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, 
if sufficient foreign currencies for carr^ang out the purpose of 
this paragraph in such countries are not otherwise available, 
the Secretar}^ of Agriculture is authorized and directed to enter 
into agreements with such countries for the same of agricultural 
commodities in such amounts as the Secretary of Agriculture 
determines to be adequate and for the use of the proceeds to 
cany out the purpose of this paragraph. In carr^'ing out agricul- 
tural market development activities, nonprofit agricultural 
trade organizations shall be utilized to the maximum extent 
practicable. The purpose of this paragraph shall include such 
representation of agricultural industries as may be required 
during the course of discussions on trade programs relating either 
to individual commodities or groups of commodities; 

(2) finance with not less than 2 per centum of the total sales 
proceeds received each year in each country activities to assist 
international educational and cultural exchange and to provide 
for the strengthening of the resources of American schools, 
colleges, universities, and other public and nonprofit private 
educational agencies for international studies and research under 
the programs authorized by title VI of the National Defense 
Education Act, the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange 
Act of 1961, the International Education Act of 1966, the Higher 
Education Act of 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Educa- 
tion Act of 1965, the National Foundation on the Arts and the 
Humanities Act of 1965, and the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967; 

(3) collect, collate, translate, abstract, and disseminate scientific 
and technological information and conduct research and support 
scientific activities overseas including programs and projects of 
scientific cooperation between the United States and other 
countries such as coordinated research against diseases common 
to all of mankind or unique to individual regions of the globe, 
and promote and support programs of medical and scientific 
research, cultural and educational development, family planning, 
health, nutrition, and sanitation; 

(4) acquire by purchase, lease, rental, or otherwise, sites and 
buildings and grounds abroad, for United States Government use, 
including offices, residence quarters, community and other 
facilities, and construct, repair, alter, and furnish such buildings 
and facilities; 

(5) finance under the direction of the Librarian of Congress, in 
consultation with the National Science Foundation and other 
interested agencies, (A) programs outside the United States for 
the anal^^sis and evaluation of foreign books, periodicals, and 
other materials to determine whether they would provide in- 
formation of technical or scientific significance in the United 
States and whether such books, periodicals, and other materials 
are of cultural or educational significance, (B) the registr}^, 
indexing, binding, reproduction, cataloging, abstracting, translat- 



21 

ing, and dissemination of books, periodicals, and related materials 
determined to have such significance; and (c) the acquisition 
of such books, periodicals, and other materials and the deposit 
thereof in libraries and research centers in the United States 
soecializing in the areas to which the}^ relate. 

(c) [Deleted on Decemb-r 20, 1975, by Public Law 94-161.] 

(d) For assistance to meet emergenc}^ or extraordinary relief require- 
ments other than requirements for food commodities: Provided, That 
not more than a total amount equivalent to $5,000,000 ma}; be made 
available for this purpose during any fiscal year. 

(e) For use to the maximum extent under the procedures established 
by such agency as the President shall designate for loans to United 
States business firms (including cooperatives) and branches, sub- 
sidiaries, or affiliates of such firms for business development and trade 
expansion in such countries, including loans for private home con- 
struction, and for loans to domestic or foreign firms (including 
cooperatives) for the establishment of facilities for aiding in the utili- 
zation, and distribution, or othermse increasing the consumption 
of, and markets for, United States agricultural products: Provided, 
however, That no such loans shall be made for the manufacture of 
any products intended to be exported to the United States in com- 
petition mth products produced in the United States and due con- 
sideration shall be given to the continued expansion of markets for 
United States agricultural commodities or the products thereof. 
Foreign currencies may be accepted in repayment of such loans; 

(f) To promote multilateral trade and agricultural and other eco- 
nomic development, under procedures, established by the President, 
by loans or by use in any other manner which the President may 
determine to be in the national interest of the United States, par- 
ticularly to assist programs of recipient countries designed to promote, 
increase, or improve food production, processing, distribution, or 
marketing in food-deficit countries friendl}^ to the United States, 
for which purpose the President may utilize to the extent practicable 
the services of nonprofit voluntary agencies registered with and 
approved by the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid: 
Provided, That no such funds may be utilized to promote religious 
activities ; 

(g) For the purchase of goods or services for other friendly countries; 

(h) For financing, at the request of such country, programs em- 
phasizing maternal welfare, child health and nutrition, and activities, 
where participation is voluntary, related to the problems of population 
growth, under procedures established by the President through any 
agency of the tJnited States, or through any local agency which he 
determines is qualified to administer such activities. Not less than 5 
per centum of the total sales proceeds received each year shall, if 
requested by the foreign country, be used for voluntar}^ programs to 
control population growth; 

(i) For paying, to the maximum extent practicable, the costs 
outside the United States of carrying out the program authorized 
in section 406 of this Act; 

(j) For sale for dollars to United States citizens and nonprofit 
organizations for travel or other purposes of currencies determined to 
be in excess of the needs of departments and agencies of the United 



22 

States for such currencies. The United States dollars received from 
the sale of such foreign currencies shall be deposited to the account 
of Commodity Credit Corporation; and 

(k) for pa}dng, to the maximum extent practicable, the costs of 
carr3dng out programs for the control of rodents, insects, weeds, and 
other animal or plant pests; Provided, That — 

(1) Section 1415 of the Supplemental Appropriation Act, 1953, 
shall apply to currencies used for the purposes specified in sub- 
sections (a) and (b), and in the case of currencies to be used for 
the purposes specified in paragraph (2) of subsection (b) the 
Appropriation Act ma}' specifically authorize the use of such 
currencies and shall not require the appropriation of dollars for 
the purchase of such currencies; 

(2) Section 1415 of the Supplem.ental Appropriations Act, 
1953, shall apph' to all foreign currencies used for grants under 
subsections (f) and (g), to not less than 10 per centum of the for- 
eign currencies which accrue pursuant to agreements entered 
into on or before December 31, 1964, and to not less than 20 
per centum in the aggregate of the foreign currencies which 
accrue pursuant to agreements entered into thereafter: Provided, 
however. That the President is authorized to waive such applica- 
bility of section 1415 in any case where he determines that it 
vrouid be inappropriate or inconsistent wdth the purposes of 
this title, 

(3) No agreement or proposal to grant any foreign currencies 
(except as provided in subsection (c) of this section), or to use 
(except pursuant to appropriation Act) an}^ principal or interest 
from loan repayments under this section shall be entered into or 
carried out until the expiration of thirty da3's follovring the date 
on which such agreement or proposal is transmitted by the 
President to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestr}^ 
and the Senate Committee on Foreign Eelations and to the 
House Cormnittee on Agriculture, and the House Committee on 
International Relations if transmitted while Congress is in 
session, or sixt}' days following the date of transmittal if trans- 
mitted while Congress is not in session. 

(4) Any loan made under the authority of this section shall 
bear interest at such rate as the President may determine but 
not less than the cost of funds to the United States Treasur3^ 
taking into consideration the current average market 3d elds on 
outstanding marketable obligations of the United States having 
maturit}^ comparable to the maturity of such loans, unless the 
President shall in specific instances after consultation with the 
advisory committee established under section 407 designate a 
different rate: 

Provided, jurther, That paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of the fore- 
going proviso shall not apph" in the case of any nation where the 
foreign currencies or credits owned b}^ the United States and 
available for use b}^ it in such nation are determined b}' the 
Secretar}^ of the Treasury to be in excess of the normal require- 
rnents of the departments and agencies of the United States for 
expenditures in such nations for the two fiscal 3'ears following the 
fiscal vear in which such determination is made. The amount of 



23 

any such excess shall be devoted to the extent practicable and 
without regard to paragraph (1) of the foregoing proviso, to the 
acquisition of sites, buildings, and grounds under paragraph (4) 
of subsection (b) of this section and to assist such nation in 
undertaking self-help measures to increase its production of agri- 
cultural commodities and its facilities for storage and distribution 
of such commodities. Assistance under the foregoing provisions 
shall be hmited to self-help measures additional to those which 
would be undertaken without such assistance. Upon the deter- 
mination by the Secretary of the Treasury that such an excess 
exists with respect to any nation, the President shall advise the 
Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry and the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations and the House Committee on 
Agriculture and the llouse Committee on International Relations 
of such determination; and shall thereafter report to each such 
committee as often as ma}^ be necessary to keep such committee 
advised as to the extent of such excess, the purposes for which 
it is used or proposed to be used, and the effects of such use. 
(7 U.S.C. 1704.) 
Sec. 105. Foreign currencies received pursuant to this Act shall be 
deposited in a special account to the credit of the United States and 
shall be used only pursuant to section 104, and any department or 
agency of the Government using any of such currencies for a purpose 
for which funds have been appropriated shall reimburse the Com- 
modity Credit Corporation in an amount equivalent to the dollar 
value of the currencies used. The President shall utilize foreign cur- 
rencies received pursuant to this Act in such manner as will, to the 
maximum extent possible, reduce any deficit in the balance of pa}- 
ments of the United States. (7 U.S.C. 1705.) 

Sec. 106. (a) Payment by anv friendh^ country for commodities pur- 
chased for dollars on credit shall be upon terms as favorable to the 
United States as the economy of such country will permit. Payment for 
such commodities shall be in dollars with interest at such rates as the 
Secretary may determine but not less than the minimum rate required 
by section 201 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 for loans made 
under that section. Pa3'ment may be made in reasonable annual 
amounts over periods of not to exceed twenty years from the date of 
the last delivery of commodities in each calendar year under the 
agreement, except that the date for beginning such annual payment 
may be deferred for a period not later than two years after such date 
of last delivery, and interest shall be computed from the date of such 
last delivery. Delivery of such commodities shall be made in annual 
installments for not more than ten years follomng the date of the sales 
agreement and subject to the availability of the commodities at the 
time delivery is to be made. 

(b) (1) Agreements hereunder for the sale of agricultural commodities 
for dollars on credit terms shall include provisions to assure that the 
proceeds from the sale of the commodities in the recipient country are 
used for such economic development purposes as are agreed upon in 
the sales agreement or an}^ amendment thereto. (7 U.S.C. 1706.) 

In negotiating such agreements with recipient countries, the United 
States shall emphasize the use of such proceeds for purposes which 
directly improve the lives of the poorest of their people and their 
capacity to participate in the development of their countries. 



24 

(2) Greatest emphasis shall be placed on the use of such proceeds to 
carry out programs of agricultural development, rural development, 
nutrition, and population planning, and to carry out the program de- 
scribed in section 406(a)(1) of this Act, in those countries which are 
undertaking self-help measures to increase agricultural production, 
improve storage, transportation, and distribution of commodities, 
and reduce population growth in accordance with, section 109 of this 
Act, and which programs are directed at and likely to achieve the 
policy objectives of sections 103 and 104 of the Foreign Assistance 
Act of 1961 and are consistent with the polic}^ objectives of this Act, 
pursuant to agreements between the United States and foreign govern- 
ments under which uses of such proceeds shall be made for such pur- 
poses. Such uses shall be deemed pa3^ments for the purpose of section 
103(b) of this Act, except that for any fiscal year the total value of 
such payments ma}^ not exceed 15 per centum of the total value of all 
agreements entered into under title I of this Act for such fiscal 3^ear. 
Such payments shall be described in the reports required by section 
408 of this Act and section 657 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. 

(3) In entering into agreements for the sale of agricultural com- 
modities for dollars on credit terms under this title, priority shall be 
given to countries which agree to use the proceeds from the sale of the 
commodities in accordance with the country's agricultural develop- 
ment plan which — 

(A) is designed to increase the access of the poor in the recipient 
country to an adequate, nutritious, and stable food supply; 

(B) provides for such objectives as — 

(i) making farm production equipment and facihties 
available to farmers, 

(ii) credit on reasonable terms and conditions for small 
farmers, and 

(iii) farm extension and technical information services 
designed to improve the marketing, storage, transportation, 
and distribution system for agricultural commodities and to 
develop the physical and institutional infrastructure support- 
ing the small farmer; 

(C) provides for participation by the poor, insofar as possible, 
in the foregoing at the regional and local levels ; and 

(D) is designed to reach the largest practicable number of 
farmers in the recipient country. 

Sec. 107. (a) It is also the policy of the Congress to stimulate and 
maximize the sale of United States agricultural commodities for dollars 
through the private trade and to further the use of private enterprise to 
the maximum, thereby strengthening the development and expansion 
of foreign commercial markets for United States agricultural com- 
modities. In furtherance of this policy, the Secretary of Agriculture is 
authorized, notv/ithstanding any other provision of law, to enter into 
agreements with foreign and United States private trade for financing 
the sale of agricultural commodities for export over such periods of 
time and on such credit terms as the Secretary determines will accom- 
plish the objectives of this section. Any agreement entered into under 
this section shall provide for the development and execution of 
projects which will result in the estabhshment of facihties designed to 



25 

improve the storage or marketing of agricultural commodities, or 
whicli will otherwise stimulate and expand private economic enterprise 
in any friendly country. Any agreement entered into under this section 
shall also provide for the furnishing of such security as the Secretary 
determines necessary to provide reasonable and adequate assurance 
of payment of the purchase price in dollars with interest at a rate 
which will as nearly as practicable be equivalent to the average cost 
of funds to the United States Treasury, as determined by the Secretary 
of the Treasury, on outstanding marketable obligations of the United 
States having maturities comparable to maturities of credits extended 
under this section. In no event shall the rate of interest be less than 
the minimum rate, or the delivery period, deferral of first payment, 
or term of credit be longer than the maximum term, authorized in 
section 106. In carrying out this Act, the authority provided in this 
section for making dollar sales shaU be used to the maximum extent 
practicable. 

(b) In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Secretary shall 
take reasonable precautions to safeguard usual marketings of the 
United States and to avoid displacing any sales of United States 
agricultural commodities which the Secretary finds and determines 
would otherwise be made for cash dollars. 

(c) The Secretary shall obtain commitments from purchasers that 
will prevent resale or transshipment to other countries, or use for other 
than domestic purposes, of agricultural commodities purchased under 
this section. 

(d) In carr3ring out this Act, the provisions of sections 102, 103(a), 
103(d), 103(e), 103(f), 103 (j), 103 (k), 110, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 
407, 408, and 409 shall be apphcable to sales under this section. (7 
U.S.C. 1707.) 

Sec. 108. The Commodity Credit Corporation ma3^ finance ocean 
freight charges incurred pursuant to agreements for sales for foreign 
currencies (other than those providing for conversion to dollars as 
described in section 103(b) of this Act) entered into hereunder only to 
the extent that such charges are higher (than would otherwise be the 
case) by reason of a requirement that the commodities be transported 
in United States-flag vessels. Such agreements shall require the balance 
of such charges for transportation in United States vessels to be paid 
in dollars by the nations or organizations with whom such agreements 
are entered into. (7 U.S.C. 1708.) 

Sec. 109. (a) Before entering into agreements with developing 
countries for the sale of United States agricultural commodities on 
whatever terms, the President shall consider the extent to which the 
recipient country is undertaking wherever practicable self-help meas- 
ures to increase per capita production and improve the means for 
storage and distribution of agricultural commodities, including: 

(1) devoting land resources to the production of needed food 
rather than to the production of nonfood crops — especially non- 
food crops in world suplus ; 

(2) development of the agricultural chemical, farm machinery 
and equipment, transportation and other necessary industries 
through private enterprise; 

(3) training and instructing farmers in agricultural methods 
and techniques; 



26 

(4) constructing adequate storage facilities; 

(5) improving marketing and distribution systems; 

(6) creating a favorable environment for private enterprise and 
investment, both domestic and foreign, and utilizing available 
technical know-how ; 

(7) establishing and maintaining Government policies to insure 
adequate incentives to producers ; 

(8) establishing and expanding institutions for adaptive agri- 
cultural research; 

(9) allocating for these purposes sufficient national budgetary 
and foreign exchange resources (including those supphed by 
bilateral, multilateral and consortium aid programs) and local 
currency resources (resulting from loans or grants to recipient 
governments of the proceeds of local currency sales) ; 

(10) carrying out voluntary programs to control population 
growth. 

In taking these self-help measures into consideration the President 
shall take into particular account the extent to which they are being 
carried out in ways designed to contribute directly to development 
progress in poor rural areas and to enable the poor to participate 
actively in increasing agricultural production through small farm 
agriculture. 

(b) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Act, in agreements 
with nations not engaged in armed conflict against Communist forces or 
against nations with w^hich the United States has no diplomatic 
relations, not less than 20 per centum of the foreign currencies set 
aside for purposes other than those in sections 104(a), (b), (c), and (j) 
shall be allocated for the self-help measures set forth in this section. 

(c) Each agreement entered into under this title shall describe the 
program which the recipient country is undertaking to improve its 
production, storage, and distribution of agricultural commodities; and 
shall provide for termination of such agreement whenever the 
President finds that such program is not being adequately developed. 
(7 U.S.C. 1709.) 

Sec. 110. Agreements shall not be entered into under this title during 
any calendar year which will call for an appropriation to reimburse the 
Commodity Credit Corporation in an amount in excess of $1,900,000,- 
000, plus any amount by which agreements entered into under this 
title in prior years have called or will call for appropriations to reim- 
burse the Commodity Credit Corporation in amounts less than 
authorized for such prior years. 

Sec. 111. Not more than 25 per centum of the food aid commodities 
provided under this title in each fiscal year shall be allocated and 
agreed to be delivered to countries other than those with an annual 
per capita gross national product of $300 or less and affected |by 
inability to secure sufficient food for their immediate requirements 
through their own production or commercial purchase from abroad, 
unless the President certifies to the Congress that the use of such food 
assistance is required for humanitarian food purposes and neither 
House of Congress disapproves such use, by resolution, within thirty 
calendar days after such certification. In determining per capita gross 
national product for the purposes of this section, the President is 
authorized and directed to make use of data developed by the World 



27 

Bank for its most recent annual report and relied upon by the Secretary 
of the Treasury. A reduction below 75 per centum in the proportion 
of food aid allocated and agreed to be delivered to countries with a 
per capita gross national product of $300 or less and affected by 
inability to secure sufficient food for their immediate requirements 
through their own production or commercial purchase from abroad 
which results from significantly changed circumstances occurring after 
the initial allocation shall not constitute a violation of the requirements 
of this section. Any reallocation of food aid shall be in accordance 
with this section so for as practicable. The President shall report 
promptly any such reduction, and the reasons therefor, to the Congress. 

Sec. 201. (a) The President is authorized to determine requirements 
and furnish agricultural commodities, on behalf of the people of the 
United States of America, to meet famine or other urgent or extraor- 
dinary relief requirements; to combat malnutrition, especially in 
children; to promote economic and community development in 
friendly developing areas; and for needy persons and nonprofit school 
lunch and preschool feeding programs outside the United States. 
The Commodity Credit Corporation shall make available to the 
President such agricultural commodities determined to be available 
under section 401 as he may request. (7 U.S.C. 1721.) 

(b) The minimum quantity of agricultural commodities distributed 
under this title shall be 1,300,000 tons of which the minimum dis- 
tributed through nonprofit voluntary agencies and the World Food 
Program shall be one million tons in each fiscal year, unless the Presi- 
dent determines and reports to the Congress, together with his reasons, 
that such quantity cannot be used effectively to carr}^ out the purposes 
of this title: Provided, That such minimum quantity shall not exceed 
the total quantity of commodities determined to be available for dis- 
position under this Act pursuant to section 401, less the quantity of 
commodities required to meet famine or other urgent or extraordinary 
relief requirements. 

Sec. 202. The President may furnish commodities for the purposes 
set forth in section 201 through such friendly governments and such 
agencies, private or public, including intergovernmental organizations 
such as the World Food Program and other multilateral organizations 
in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as he deems 
appropriate. The President shall, to the extent practicable, utilize 
nonprofit voluntary agencies registered with, and approved by, the 
Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid. Insofar as practicable, 
all commodities furnished hereunder shall be clearly identified by 
appropriate marking on each package of container in the language of 
the locality where they are distributed as being furnished b}^ the 
people of the United States of America. The assistance to needy 
persons shall insofar as practicable be directed toward community 
and other self-help activities designed to alleviate the causes of the 
need for such assistance. Except in the case of emergenc}^, the President 
shall take reasonable precaution to assure that commodities furnished 
hereunder will not displace or interfere with sales which might other- 
wise be made. (7 U.S.C. 1722.) 

Sec. 203. The Commodity Credit Corporation may, in addition to 
the cost of acquisition, pay with respect to commodities made available 
under this title costs for packaging, enrichment, preservation, and 



28 

fortification; processing, transportation, handling, and other incidental 
costs up to the time of their delivery free on board vessels in United 
States ports; ocean freight charges from United States ports to desig- 
nated ports of entry abroad, or in the case of landlocked countries, 
transportation from United States ports to designated points of 
entry abroad; and charges for general average contributions arising 
out of the ocean transport of commodities transferred pursuant 
thereto. (7 U.S.C. 1723.) 

Sec. 204. Programs of assistance shall not be undertaken under this 
title during any calendar year which call for an appropriation of more 
than $600,000,000 to reimburse the Commodity Credit Corporation 
for all costs incurred in connection with such programs (including the 
Corporation's investment in commodities made available) plus any 
amount by which programs of assistance undertaken under this title 
in the preceding calendar year have called or will call for appropriations 
to reimburse the Commodity Credit Corporation in amounts less than 
were authorized for such purpose during such preceding year. In addi- 
tion to other funds available for such purposes under any other Act, 
funds made available under this title may be used in an amount not- 
exceeding $7,500,000 annually to purchase foreign currencies accruing 
under title I of this Act in order to meet costs (except the personnel and 
administrative costs of cooperating sponsors, distributing agencies, 
and recipient agencies, and the costs of construction or maintenance 
of any church owned or operated edifice or any other edifices to be 
used for sectarian purposes) designed to assure that commodities made 
available under this title are used to carry out effectively the purposes 
for which such commodities are made available or to promote com- 
munity and other self-help activities designed to alleviate the causes 
of the need for such assistance : Provided, however, That such funds shall 
be used only to supplement and not substitute for funds normally 
available for such purposes from other non- United States Government 
sources. (7 U.S.C. 1724.) 

Sec. 205. It is the sense of the Congress that the President should 
encourage other advanced nations to make increased contributions 
for the purpose of combating world hunger and malnutrition, partic- 
ularly through the expansion of international food and agricultural 
assistance programs. It is further the sense of the Congress that as a 
means of achieving this objective, the United States should work for 
the expansion of the United Nations World food program beyond 
its present established goals. (7 U.S.C. 1725.) 

Sec. 206. Except to meet famine or other urgent or extraordinary 
relief requirements, no assistance under this title shall be provided 
under an agreement permitting generation of foreign currency pro- 
ceeds unless (1) the country receiving the assistance is undertaking 
self-help measures in accordance with section 109 of this Act, (2) the 
specific uses to which the foreign currencies are to be put are set forth 
in a written agreement between the United States and the recipient 
country, and (3) such agreement provides that the currencies will be 
used for purposes specified in section 103 of the Foreign Assistance 
Act of 1961. The President shall include information on currencies 
used in accordance with this section in the reports required under 
section 408 of this Act and section 657 of the Foreign Assistance Act 
of 1961. 



29 
Title III 

Sec. 301. [This section contains an amendment to section 407 of the 
Agricultural Act of 1949, authorizins: Commodity Credit Corporation 
to make commodities available to relieve distress.] 

Sec. 302. [This section contains a revision of section 416 of the 
Agricultural Act of 1949, which authorizes various methods of disposi- 
tion by Commodity Credit Corporation of commodities in surplus 
supply.] 

Sec. 303. The Secretary shall, whenever he determines that such 
action is in the best interest of the United States, and to the maximum 
extent practicable, barter or exchange agricultural commodities owned 
by the Commodity Credit Corporation for (a) such strategic or other 
materials of which the United States does not domestically produce its 
requirements and which entail less risk of loss through deterioration or 
substantially less storage charges as the President may designate, or 
(b) materials, goods, or equipment required in connection with foreign 
economic and military aid and assistance programs, or (c) materials or 
equipment required in substantial quantities for offshore construction 
programs. He is hereby directed to use every practicable means, in 
cooperation with other Government agencies, to arrange and make, 
through private channels, such barters or exchanges or to utilize the 
authority conferred on him by section 4(h) of the Commodity Credit 
Corporation Charter Act, as amended, to make such barters or ex- 
changes. In carrying out barters or exchanges authorized by this sec- 
tion, no restrictions shall be placed on the countries of the free world 
into which surplus agricultural commodities may be sold, except to 
the extent that the Secretary shall find necessary in order to take rea- 
sonable precautions to safeguard usual marketings of the United States 
and to assure that barters or exchanges under this Act will not unduly 
disrupt world prices of agricultural commodities or replace cash sales 
for dollars. The Secretary may permit the domestic processing of raw 
materials of foreign origin. The Secretary shall endeavor to cooperate 
with other exporting countries in preserving normal patterns of 
commercial trade with respect to commodities covered by formal 
multilateral international marketing agreements to which the United 
States is a party. Agencies of the United States Government pro- 
curing such materials, goods, or equipment are hereby directed to 
cooperate with the Secretary in the disposal of surplus agricultural 
commodities by means of barter or exchange. The Secretary is also 
directed to assist, through such means as are available to him, farmers' 
cooperatives in effecting exchange of agricultural commodities in 
their possession for strategic materials. Barter or exchange of agricul- 
tural commodities under clause (a) of this section shall be limited to 
exchange for materials which originate in the country to which the 
surplus agricultural commodities are exported and to arrangements 
which will prevent resale or transshipment of the agricultural com- 
modities to other countries. (7 U.S.C. 1692.) 

Sec. 304-308. [Repealed on November 11, 1966, by Public Law 89- 
808.] 

Title IV 

Sec. 401. After consulting with other agencies of the Government 
affected and within policies laid down by the President for implement- 



30 

ing this Act, and after taking into account productive capacity, 
domestic requirements, farm and consumer price levels, commercial 
exports, and adequate carryover, the Secretary of Agriculture shall 
determine the agricultural commodities and quantities thereof avail- 
able for disposition under this Act, and the commodities and quantities 
thereof which may be included in the negotiations with each countr}^ 
No commodity shall be available for disposition under this Act if such 
disposition would reduce the domestic supply of such commodity 
below that needed to meet domestic requirements, adequate carryover, 
and anticipated exports for dollars as determined by the Secretary of 
Agriculture at the time of exportation of such commodity. (7 U.S.C. 
1731.) 

Sec. 402. The term ''agricultural commodity" as used in this Act 
shall include any agricultural commodity produced in the United States 
or product thereof produced in the United States: Provided, however, 
That the term ''agricultural commodity" shall not include alcoholic 
beverages, and for the purposes of title II of this Act, tobacco or 
products thereof. The foregoing proviso shall not be construed as 
prohibiting representatives of the domestic mne industry from par- 
ticipating in market development activities carried out wath foreign 
currencies made available under title I of this Act which have as their 
purpose the expansion of export sales of United States agricidtural 
commodities. (7 U.S.C. 1732.) Subject to the availability of appropria- 
tions therefor, any domestically produced fishery product may be 
made available under this Act. (7 U.S.C. 1732.) 

Sec. 403. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums 
as may be necessary to carry out this Act including such amounts as 
may be required to make payments to the Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration, to the extent the Commodity Credit Corporation is not reim- 
bursed under sections 104(j) and 105, for its actual costs incurred 
or to be incurred. In presenting his budget, the President shall classify 
expenditures under this Act as expenditures for international affairs 
and finance rather than for agriculture and agricultural resources. 
(7 U.S.C. 1733.) 

Sec. 404. The programs of assistance undertaken pursuant to this 
Act shall be directed toward the attainment of the humanitarian 
objectives and national interest of the United States. (7 U.S.C. 1734.) 

Sec. 405. The authority and funds provided by this Act shall be 
utilized in a manner that will assist friendly countries that are deter- 
mined to help themselves toward a greater degree of self-reliance in 
providing enough food to meet the needs of their people and in re- 
solving their problems relative to population growth. (17 U.S.C. 
1735.) 

Sec. 406. (a) In order to further assist friendly developing countries 
to become self-sufficient in food production, the President is author- 
ized, notwithstanding any other provision of law — 

(1) To establish and administer a program of farmer-to-farmer 
assistance between the United States and such countries to help 
farmers in such countries in the practical aspects of increasing 
food production and distribution and improving the effectiveness 
of their farming operations; 

(2) to enter into contracts or other cooperative agreements with, 
or make grants to, land-grant colleges and universities and other 



31 

institutions of higher learning in the United States to recruit per- 
sons who by reason of training, education, or practical experience 
are knowledgeable in the practical arts and sciences of agriculture 
and home economics, and to train such persons in the practical 
techniques of transmitting to farmers in such countries improved 
practices in agriculture, and to participate in carrying out the 
program in such countries including, where desirable, additional 
courses for training or retraining in such countries ; 

(3) To consult and cooperate wdth private non-profit farm 
organizations in the exchange of farm youth and farm leaders with 
developing countries and in the training of farmers of such de- 
veloping countries within the United States or abroad ; 

(4) To conduct research in tropical and subtropical agriculture 
for the improvement and development of tropical and subtropical 
food products for dissemination and cultivation in friendly 
countries; 

(5) To coordinate the program authorized in this section with 
other foreign assistance activities of the United States ; 

(6) To establish by such rules and regulations as he deems 
necessary the conditions for eligibility and retention in and dis- 
missal from the program established in this section, together with 
the terms, length and nature of service, compensation, employee 
status, oaths of office, and security clearances, and such persons 
shall be entitled to the benefits and subject to the responsibilities 
applicable to persons serving in the Peace Corps pursuant to 
the provisions of section 612, volume 75 of the Statutes at Large, 
as amended; and 

(7) To the maximum extent practicable, to pay the costs of 
such program through the use of foreign currencies accruing 
from the sale of agricultural commodities under this Act, as 
provided in section 104(i). 

(b) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated not to exceed 
$33,000,000 during any fiscal year for the purpose of carrying out the 
provisions of this section. (7 U.S.C. 1736.) 

Sec. 407. There is hereby established an Advisory Committee com- 
posed of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Secretary of Agriculture, the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, 
the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, the 
chairman and the ranking minority member of both the House 
Committee on Agriculture and the House Committee on Foreign 
Affairs, and the chairman and the ranking minority member of both 
the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry and the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations, or their designees (who shall be 
members of such committees or, in the case of members from the 
executive branch, who shall have been confirmed by the Senate). 

The Advisory Committee shall survey the general policies relating 
to the administration of the Act, including the manner of implement- 
ing the self-help provisions, the uses to be made of foreign currencies 
which accrue in connection with sales for foreign currencies under 
title I, the amount of currencies to be reserved in sales agreements 
for loans to private industry under section 104(e), rates of exchange, 
interest rates, and the terms under which dollar credit sales are made, 
and shall advise the President w^ith respect thereto. The Advisory 



32 

Committee shall meet not less than four tunes during each calendar 
year at the call of the Acting Chairman of such Committee who shall 
preside in the following order: The chairman of the House Committee 
on Agricidture, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture and 
Forestry, and the chairman of the House Committee on Foreign 
Affairs. (7 U.S.C. 1736a.), 

Sec. 408. (a) The President shall make a report to Congress not 
later than April 1 each year with respect to the activities carried out 
under this Act during the preceding fiscal year. Such report shall 
describe the progress of each country with which agreements are in 
effect under title I in carrying out its agreements under such title. 
(7 U.S.C. 1736b.) 

(b) In his presentation to the Congress of planned programing 
of food assistance for each fiscal year, the President shall include a 
global assessment of food production and needs, self-help steps which 
are being taken by food-short countries under section 109(a) of this 
Act, steps which are being taken to encourage other countries to 
increase their participation in food assistance or the financing of food 
assistance, and the relationship between food assistance provided to 
each country under this Act and other foreign assistance provided 
to such country by the United States and other donors. 

(c) Not later than November 1 of each calendar year the President 
shall submit to the House Committee on Agriculture, the House Com- 
mittee on International Relations, the Senate Committee on Agricul- 
ture and Forestry, and the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations a 
revised global assessment of food production and needs, and revised 
planned programing of food assistance for the current fiscal year, 
to reflect, to the maximum extent feasible, the actual availability of 
commodities for food assistance. 

Sec. 409. No agreements to finance sales under title I and no pro- 
grams of assistance under title II shall be entered into after Decem- 
ber 31, 1977. (7 U.S.C. 1736c.) 

Sec. 410. The provisions of section 620(c) of the Foreign Assistance 
Act of 1961, as amended (referring to nationalization, expropriation, 
and related governmental Acts affecting property owned by United 
States citizens), shall be applicable to assistance provided under title 
I of this Act. (7 U.S.C. 1736d.) 

Sec. 411. No agricultural commodities shall be sold under title I 
or title III or donated under title II of this Act to North Vietnam, 
unless by an Act of Congress enacted subsequent to July 1, 1973, 
assistance to North Vietnam is specifically authorized. 

Sec. 412. The President is authorized and encouraged to seek inter- 
national agreement, subject to congressional approval, for a system 
of food reserves to meet food shortage emergencies and to provide 
insurance against unexpected shortfalls in food production, with costs 
of such a system to be equitably shared among nations and with 
farmers and consumers to be given firm safeguards against market 
price disruption from such a system. 



STATISTICAL TABLES RELATING TO PUBLIC LAW 480 



TABLE I.-VALUE OF U.S. FARM PRODUCTS SHIPPED UNDER PUBLIC LAW 480 ANNUALLY. 1955-77 

[In thousands of dollars] 

Total Title I Title II 

1955 384, 425 

1956 884,903 

1957 1, 525, 062 

1958 981,033 

1959 1, 017, 286 

1960 1,115,866 

1961 1, 316, 366 

1952 1, 495, 498 

1963 1, 456, 269 

1964 1,417,993 

1965 1,570,487 

1966 1,345,879 

1967 1,270,818 

1968 1, 279, 464 

1969 1, 038, 590 

1970 1,055,815 

1971 1,022,963 

1972 1,082,741 

1973 957,361 

1974 858,291 

1975 .. 1, 098, 057 

1976 estimate 1,359,147 

1977 estimate 1, 231, 000 

(33) 



197, 584 


186, 841 


737, 236 


247, 667 


1, 308, 283 


216,779 


757, 292 


223, 741 


856, 402 


160, 884 


973, 104 


142,762 


1,095,449 


220,917 


1, 246, 768 


248, 730 


1, 192, 805 


263, 464 


1, 148, 043 


269, 950 


1,331,739 


238, 748 


1,079,357 


266, 522 


1,003,450 


257, 368 


1,029,326 


250, 138 


773, 853 


264, 737 


815,221 


240, 594 


743,018 


279, 945 


679, 000 


403, 741 


667, 400 


289, 961 


575, 376 


282,915 


763, 620 


334, 437 


983, 000 


376, 147 


866, 000 


365,000 



34 



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39 



TABLE VI -PRESENTATION TO THE CONGRESS OF PROJECTED PROGRAMING FOR FISCAL YEAR 197S, PUBLIC LAW 

480, TITLE II 



(Value and volume of commodities by country; dollars in thousands] 





Fiscal 


Fiscal 
year 
1975 






Fiscal year 1976 








Total 
value 


Wheat 


Feedgrain 


Vegoil 


1 


Region/country 


Value 


Metric 
tons 


Valuo 


Metric 
tons 


Value 


Metric 
tons 


AFRICA 

Botswana— World food pro- 
gram 


$1,849 
7,497 
4,619 

690 . 
2,188 
1,932 
1,395 

537 

517 
2,674 
1.413 
1.261 
11,584 
10, 008 

122 . 

1.454 

6.769 

6,568 

12 . 

189 

2.336 

1,501 

£35 

14. 320 

12.350 


52, 425 
2,026 
1,357 


51,959 . 

1,123 

561 






51,615 


9.012 


,3« 


332 


Ethiopia (total) 


51, 105 
561 


7.867 . 
3. 992 . 


17 


Government to Government- 








Voluntary agencies 










World food program 


669 
2,310 
2,197 

113 

905 
2,319 
1,357 

962 
6,519 
6,371 

""148' 
1.920 
1.527 

""393" 
2.296 
1.226 
1.070 
6,258 
5,271 


562 
1. 580 . 
1.480 . 

100 . 

1.048 
2.165 
1,618 

548 
2,570 

999 . 
1,487 . 

84 
2,824 

999 . 
1,487 . 

338 
1.8C1 
1,173 

628 
2.589 

999 . 
1.487 . 

103 
3.075 
2,314 

999 . 
1, 258 . 

57 
1.753 
1. 580 . 

188 
4,574 

959 . 
3,615 
2,742 


545 

481 

343 

340 

3 

41 

41" 

271 

......... 

1.356 

897 

459 

26 

26'" 
1. 075 
21 

21"' 

103 

""163" 
2.054 

""2.'654" 
200 


3,875 . 

2.201 

1.956 

1.945 

20 

235 

""236" 
1,745 

"i.'745". 
7.661 
5, 068 . 
2, 593 
147 

""l47' 
6.237 
123 

""123' 

544 

""544' 
14,605 

'14,' 505'. 
1,168 






17 
126 
84 
42 

456 
958 
802 
155 
24 


17 


Ghana (total). 


1.454 

1,396 

58 

111 
865 
476 
389 

2,505 
999 

1,437 
19 

2,485 
999 

1,487 
......... 


5,455 

6,159 

296 

723 
10.415 

5,601 

4.815 
15.643 

9,979 . 

5.571 . 

98 
15, 550 

9,979 . 

5.571 . 

"i.'oss' 


117 


Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Ivory Coast— World food pro- 
gram 

Lesotho (total) 


77 
40 

440 
885 


Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Mali (total) 

Government to Government. 


735 
150 
23 


Voluntary agencies 






World food program 

Mauritania 

Government to Government. 


24 
67 


23 
65 


Voluntary agencies 






World food program 

Mauritius (total) 


67 
328 
275 
52 
34 


65 
317 


Government to Government. 


267 


World food program 

Niger (total) 

Government to Government. 


117 
2,529 

999 

1,487 

43 

1,991 

2,293 

999 

1,258 

36 

1.002 

989 
13 

783 

783 


1.065 
16.025 

9,979 . 

5.571 . 

475 
17,029 
15,433 . 

9, 979 . 

6, 075 . 
378 . 

6.065 

5.906 
159 

4.858 

4,S58 


50 
33 


Voluntary agencies 






World food program 

Nigeria— World food program. 
Sengal (total) 


1,S70 
2.228 
5.205 
3,558 

489 
1,358 
1,178 

981 

197 
1,871 

654 
1.217 
2,379 


987 
2.254 
1,550 

724 

755 

70 

2,377 

2,173 

204 
9,113 

995 
8,123 
11,906 
6, 328 . 
2,845 
2,233 . 
1,277 

776 

501 
2,703 

774 
1,539 

390 

937 

925 
12 


34 
9 


33 
9 


Government to Government. 






Voluntary agencies 






World food program 

Sierre Leone (total) 


""663"' 

591 

72 

1,737 

175 

1,561 

1.224 


'"625 


Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Sudan (total) 


555 

70 

1,667 


Voluntary agencies 

World food program 


161 
1,506 


Tanzania (total) 

Government to Government.. 


1,318 


6,538 


1,123 


Voluntary agencies 

World food program 


1.858 
521 

1,122 
762 
360 

6,125 

4,522 
603 

l.COl 
292 
292 


2.742 


200 


1,168 


1,313 


6.538 


1.224 


1.123 


Togo (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Upper Voita (total) 

Government to Government 


1.314 

943 

371 . 
3,745 

999 . 
2,4i0 . 

335 
1,702 
1.690 . 
12 


413 
413 

34" 


1,476 
1,476 

""195' 


513 
218 
295 

3,407 
999 

2,226 

182 

566 

552 

4 


5.066 
2. 568 
2.498 
21, 520 
9,979 . 
9,730 
1,811 
4.673 
4,554 
19 


388 

312 

76 

304 


360 

286 

74 

285 


Voluntary agencies 


184 

120 

1,132 

1,128 

4 


169 


World food program 

Zaire (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food frogram 


34 

4 

a" 


li35 
21 

21* 


116 

1,038 

1,034 

4 



Other. 



Subtotal. 



Total, Atrica. 



. 69,879 
. 13,658 


59,100 
15,612 


38. 894 
7.755 


7,523 
2,099 


46. 192 
12. 368 


23, 555 
3,591 


156, 976 
23, 142 


7,811 
2.066 


7,336 
1,896 


. 83,537 


74. 712 


46,550 


9.627 


58, 560 


27, 146 


180,118 


9.877 


9,232 



40 



TABLE VI.— PRESENTATION TO THE CONGRESS OF PROJECTED PROGRAMING FOR FISCAL YEAR 1976, 
PUBLIC LAW 480. TITLE II— Continued 

[Value and volume of commodities by country; dollars in thousands] 





Fiscal 
year 
1974 


Fiscal 

year 
1975 






Fiscal year 1978 








Total 
value 


Wheat 


Feedgrain 


Vegoil 


Region/country 


Value 


Metric 
tons 


Value 


Metric 
tons 


Value 


Metric 
tons 


NEAR EAST AND 
SOUTH ASIA 

Afghanistan— World food 
program 


44 

;*"3,"326" 
1,319 
. 2,001 


3, 810 
2,428 
4,001 
3, 300 

70i' 

19, 197 

13, 761 

5,435 

104, 840 

74, 964 

29, 875 

1,787 

815 

972 

'"i2,'i26* 
12, 126 


1,850 
2,119 
1,774 


981 

2,119 

245 


6, 288 . 

11,970 . 

1,166 






869 


839 


Algeria-World food program., 
Bangladesh (total) 








852 


4,404 


677 


620 


Government to Government 




Voluntary agencies , 

World food program. 


1,774 


245 


1,165 


852 


4,404 


677 


620 


Egypt (total) 


. 3,153 

. 2, 899 

254 

. 60,287 

. 55,599 

. 3,688 

. 1,147 

302 

845 

866 

. 16,662 

. 15,786 

876 

. 4, 828 

233 

. 4, 595 

2,611 

2,811 


12,821 

8,312 

4,509 

74, 104 

69, 522 

4,582 

1,980 

1,107 

873 

1,329 
7,794 
7,794 


9,806 

5,397 

4,509 

37. 531 

33, 227 

4,354 

1,218 

491 

727 

459 
5,275 
5,275 


40, 509 

28, 206 

12, 303 . 

124, 754 

105, 786 

18,973 

6,589 

2,451 

4, 138 . 

2,269 
21,434 
21,434 


1,787 
1,787 


8,601 
8,601 


1,128 
1,128 


1.034 


Voluntary agencies 

World food program 


1,034 


India (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Jordan (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 


19, 750 

19, 522 

228 

160 

160 


S5, 789 

93, 762 

2,027 . 

684 

684 


16, 774 
16.773 


15. 388 
15,388 


602 
456 
146 

772 
1,246 
1,245 


559 
418 
141 


Jordan, WB— Voluntary 

agencies 

Morocco (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food proijram 

Pakistan (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Sri Lanka (total) 


98 
1,273 
1,273 


188 
6,597 
6,597 


708 
1,142 
1.142 


4,661 
1,002 
3,659 
4,547 
2,823 
1,724 


2,445 
1,378 
1,068 
4, 960 
3, 541 
1,419 
2,500 


861 

673 

188 

4,395 

3,488 

907 

1, 5S5 


2,860 
1,525 . 
1,335 
13,244 
8, 123 . 
5, 121 
11,340 . 


880 

■""880" 
512 

"""'5i2"' 


8,175 

■"8,'i75'. 
4,650 

■""4,'550\ 


705 . 
705 

53" 

53 


646 
646 

48 


Voluntary agencies 


48 


Syria (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 


1 -. 
1 .. 


905 


873 




2,500 
6,003 

2, 654 

2,797 

552 

1,325 


1,595 
3,828 

1,534 

1,878 

416 

1,325 


11,340 . 
19,002 

8,667 
7,987 . 
2,348 . 
9,421 . 


......... 

577 


"2,"274" 
2,274 


905 
1,598 

543 
919 
136 


873 


Tunisia (total) 

Government to Govern- 
ment 

Voluntary agencies 


6,249 

2,074 
2,948 
1,227 
3,792 
3,792 


5,290 

2,278 
2,405 
607 
3,964 
2,380 . 
1,584 
2,387 
2,387 


1,498 

524 
843 


World food program 

Turkey (total) 






131 


Voluntary agencies 

World food proeran 










1,325 
1,300 
1,300 


1,325 
1,178 
1,178 


9,42) . 

7,480 

7,480 










Yemen (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 


1,560 
978 
582 . 


43 
43 


171 
171 


79 
79 


72 
72 


















Subtotal ~ 

Other 


104,520 ] 
24, 793 


169,038 : 
4,797 


122,305 
2,234 


70, 966 

808 


278,336 
3,832 


25, 932 
1,076 


131,553 
8,302 


25. 407 
350 


23,427 
330 


Grand total, NESA... 


129,313 ,1 


173,835 : 


124,539, 


71,774 


282, 158 


27,008 


139,855 


25, 757 


23.757 



EAST ASIA 

Indonesia (total) 9,151 

Government to Government. 5,365 

Voluntary agencies 1,277 

World food program 2,509 

Khmer Republic (total) 15 

Government to Government 

Voluntary agencies 15 

Korea— World food program.. 5, 553 

Laos(tot3l) 3,441 

Government to Government. 3,080 

Voluntary agencies 361 

Philippines (totsi) 11,990 

Voluntary agencies 8,323 

World food program 3,662 

Vietnam (total) 995 

Government to Government. 37 

Voluntary agencies 958 

World food program 

Subtotal 

Other countries in region less 
than 1.000,000 

Grand total. East Asia. 



8,270 4,060 3,590 16,828 470 3,101 -. 

"3,'ii5 937 659"'"'2,"658 278"*'i,"50i'!]l!II""I^""I 

5,155 3,123 2,931 14,770 192 1,600 

1,764 



1,764 

8,646 7,559 7,315 41,327 98 496 45 140 
3,199 4,718 2,589 13,550 909 7,252 1,220 1,169 
2,943 3,283 1,962 10,309 810 6,632 1.051 1,014 

256 895 627 3,241 99 620 169 155 
9,527 10,129 2,539 11,994 7,559 47,299 31 30 
8,854 9,564 2,217 10,172 7,347 45,528 

673 565 322 1,822 212 1,771 31 30 

3,325 



3,212 

113 



. 31,145 
203 


34, 731 
454 


26, 466 
403 


16, 034 
297 


83,699 
1,682 


9,035 
35 


58, 148 
183 


1,395 
70 


1,339 
148 


. 31,348 


35, 185 


26, 869 


16. 331 


85, 381 


9,072 


58, 331 


1.466 


1,487 



41 



TABLE VI.— PRESENTATION TO THE CONGRESS OF PROJECTED PROGRAMING FOR FISCAL YEAR 1976, 
PUBLIC LAW 480, TITLE 11— Continued 

[Value and volume of commodities by country; dollars in thousands] 





Fiscal 
year 
1974 


Fiscal 
year 
1975 




Fiscal year 1976 






Total 
value . 


Wheat Feedgrain 


Vegojl 


Region/country 


Metric Metric 
Value tons Value tons 


Metric 
Value tons 



LATIN AMERICA 

Bolivia (total) 1,847 4,257 

Government to Govern- 
ment 

Voluntary agencies. 

World food program , 

Brazil (total) 

Government to Government 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Chile (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program , 

Columbia (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Dominican Republic (total).. 

Voluntary agencies. 

World food program 

Ecuador (total) , 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Guatemala (total).. 

Voluntary agencies. , 

World food program 

Haiti (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Honduras (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Nicaragua (total) 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Panama— Voluntary agencies. 
Peru (total) 

Government to Government 

Voluntary agencies 

World food program 

Subtotal 

Other 

Grant total, Latin 
America 38,716 64,932 



4,553 1,081 5,035 2,538 4,861 



934 



861 





306 
3,614 


307 
4,246 


159 
922 


829 
4,206 


45 
2,493 


297 
4,564 


103 
831 


99 


. 1,722 


762 


125 


337 . 
8,313 






' 










. 5, 456 


1,642 


795 


4,489 


614 


3,171 


233 


225 


. 2, 270 


2,115 . 
















. 2,044 


4,281 . 
















. 1,142 


1,917 


,1,642 


795 


,4,489 


614 


3,171 


,233 


225 


. 3,210 


3,999 


4,686 


3,059 


11,705 


389 


2,065 


1.238 


1,137 


. 3,210 


3,736 


4,451 


2,883 


10, 708 


377 


2,003 • 


1,191 


1,092 




263 
12,835 


235 
10,335 


176 
3,535 


997 
15,779 


12 
2,683 


63 
13,815 


47 
4,017 


45 


. 6, 844 


3,763 


. 5, 093 


8,830 


7,721 


2,929 


11,789 


2,433 


10,718 


2,359 


2.163 


. 1.751 


4,005 


2,614 


706 


3,990 


250 


3,097 


1,658 


1.600 


4,279 


5,506 


5,046 


1,531 


5,006 


2,058 


10, 883 


1,457 


1,336 


4,249 
30 . 


5,506 


5,046 


1,531 


5,006 


2,058 


10. 883 


1,457 


1.336 


. 3, 328 


3,505 


2,559 


1,294 


5.572 


590 


2,484 


675 


626 


. 3,328 


2,907 


2,022 


1,006 


3,910 


497 


2,011 


519 


476 




598 
5,216 


537 
4,116 


■ 288 
989 


1,652 
4,587 


93 
1,895 


473 
6,216 


156 
1,232 


150 


. 1,187 


1.130 


1,180 


5,170 


4,077 


976 


4,512 


1,879 


6,056 


1,222 


1,120 


7 


45 


39 


13 


75 


16 


160. 


10 


10 


. 2,012 


2,640 


2,390 


1,242 


5,685 


474 


2,838 


674 


622 


. 1.952 


2,349 


2,065 


1,117 


4,982 


361 


1,712 


588 


539 


60 


29! 


324 


125 


7oa 


113 


1,126 


86 


•83 


1,168 


2,348 


1,002 


609 


2,353 


204 


1.068 


189 


177 


783 


2,066 


740 


440 


1,460 


204 


1,068 


96 


87 


385 


282 


262 


169 


893 . 






93 


90 


. 2,029 


1.742 


1.486 


131 


722 


926 


5,114 


429 


394 


521 


1,617 


1,382 


60 


323 


893 


4,814 


429 


394 


. 1,508 


125 


104 


81 


399 


33 


300 . 






712 


1,890 


1.103 


163 


553 


618 


3, 341 


321 


294 


3,418 


9.650 


6,112 


2,414 


11,587 


2,130 


11,966 


1,568' 


"1,473 


403 


3,972 


1,975 


880 


4,615 


722 


2,848 


373 


350 


2 666 


3, 973 
1,705 


2,810 
1,327 


1,167 . 
367 


■■"2," 156' 


811 . 
597 




832 . 
363 




349 


6,203 


350 


. 35,490 


61,901 


45, 030 


16,944 


73, 073 


15,119 


70, 823 


12, 967 


12,038 


. 3, 226 


3,031 


1,914 


459 


2,299 


995 


2,660 


460 


501 



46,944 17,403 75,372 16,114 73,483 13,427 12,539 



42 



Vi 

■.a 

<: „_ 

< — 

S = 

O 3 

q: o 

a- E 

z Z 

O J2 

»- "o 

<: Q 









o.-ieo< 

coooSr 






(jl? CO U-> CT) 



CO «a- — •-• 
kr>ooror«. 






o E 



3 £g5£ 



1 3^'^.s 



E-S 



E=2S 



43 



TABLE VII.— PUBLIC LAW 480 TITLE II SHIPMENTS BY SPONSOR 
(In metric tons grain equivalenll 



Fiscal year- 



Item 



1972 


1973 


1974 


1975 estimate 


1975 projected 


1,637,146 


1. 065, 982 


705,977 


750. 4S2 


620, 652 


1,018.749 
279,118 
109, 400 
229 879 


710. 560 

285, 578 

64, 820 

5,024 


496, 945 

170,297 

37,754 

980 


432,578 
275, 192 
32, 527 
10,035 . 


281,005 

298, 532 

41,115 






380, 318 


351. 127 


341,518 


366, 469 


310.040 


226. 669 
111.980 
20, S53 


250, C47 
95,180 
14, 514 
1,385 .. 


179,279 

150, 847 

11,392 


202, 271 
111,929 
13,830 
38.439 . 


204, 225 
92, 527 
13,288 


21 116 








2,017,464 


1. 427. 109 


1,047,495 


1.116.951 


930, 692 






689, 090 


844, 048 


456, 200 


318. 329 


374, 057 


416, 163 


643, 312 
135, 839 

32. 177 

32,720 .. 


61.514 

390,300 

4.386 


66, 188 
127,319 
2.322 
122, 500 . 


133.703 


99, 428 


236. 938 


57. 183 
116.316 


3.416 








. 2, 706. 554 


2.271,157 


1. 503. 695 


1. 435. 280 


1. 304. 749 



Voluntary agencies total 

Wheat 

Feed grains 

VeRoii 

Otner 

World food program tcta! 

Wheat 

Feeograin.'; 

Vegoil 

Other 

Subtotal voluntary ajcncies and 
world food programs 

Government to Government total.. 

Wheat 

Feedgrains 

Vegoil 

Other 

Grand total 

Wheat 1,661,581 

Feedgrains 490. 526 

Vegon 187, 136 

Other : 367, 311 



1,603.919 
516, 597 
111,511 
39.130 



737, 739 

711.444 

53, 532 



701, 137 
514, 440 
48,679 
171,024 



618.933 

627. 997 

57, 819 



o 



'1111